Cell cycle-dependent O-GlcNAc modification of tobacco histones and their interaction with the tobacco lectin.
The time courses of the contents of free, soluble and insoluble polyamine (PA) conjugates, PA biosynthetic and catabolic enzyme activities and mRNA levels of PA biosynthetic genes were monitored during the cell cycle of synchronized tobacco BY-2 cell line (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Bright Yellow 2). Progression through the cell cycle was characterized by specific biphasic changes of PA levels. The first, moderate peak in the amount of free PAs coincided with the S-phase. After a transient decline in G2 phase the contents of free PAs increased rapidly and peaked again during G2/M interface. Then sharply decreased with the minimum at the end of mitosis and during M/G1 transition and started to rise again with the next replication phase. Levels of PA soluble conjugates paralleled those of the free forms. Biosynthetic enzyme activities followed the biphasic manner analogous to the levels of free PAs and seemed to be regulated on both transcriptional and (post)translational level. PA cellular levels were further controlled by both catabolic degradation and conjugation of PAs. PA catabolism played an important role in the PA down-regulation during G2 phase and late mitosis, while the decline in free PAs in G2/M interface and during the whole mitosis resulted mainly from PA conjugation. This study's results demonstrate that during the cell cycle of tobacco BY-2 cells endogenous PA levels are intricately controlled, involving regulation of activities of biosynthetic, catabolic and conjugation enzymes.