Pollution, habitat loss, fishing, and climate change as critical threats to penguins

  title={Pollution, habitat loss, fishing, and climate change as critical threats to penguins},
  author={Philip N. Trathan and Pablo Garc{\'i}a-Borboroglu and Dee Boersma and Charles-Andr{\'e} Bost and Robert J. M. Crawford and Glenn T. Crossin and Richard J. Cuthbert and Peter Dann and Lloyd S. Davis and Santiago de la Puente and Ursula Ellenberg and Heather J. Lynch and Thomas Mattern and Klemens P{\"u}tz and Philip J. Seddon and Wayne Z. Trivelpiece and Barbara Wienecke},
  journal={Conservation Biology},
Cumulative human impacts across the world's oceans are considerable. We therefore examined a single model taxonomic group, the penguins (Spheniscidae), to explore how marine species and communities might be at risk of decline or extinction in the southern hemisphere. We sought to determine the most important threats to penguins and to suggest means to mitigate these threats. Our review has relevance to other taxonomic groups in the southern hemisphere and in northern latitudes, where human… 
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