Pollutant lead reveals the pre‐Hellenistic occupation and ancient growth of Alexandria, Egypt

  title={Pollutant lead reveals the pre‐Hellenistic occupation and ancient growth of Alexandria, Egypt},
  author={Alain V{\'e}ron and Jean‐philippe Goiran and Christophe Morhange and Nick Marriner and Jean-Yves Empereur},
  journal={Geophysical Research Letters},
It is generally accepted that Alexandria ad Aegyptum was founded ex nihilo in 331 BC by Alexander the Great, rapidly growing into one of antiquity's most opulent economic and intellectual centers. However, ancient texts by Strabo (17.1.6) and Pliny (NH 5.11.62) suggest the existence of a pre‐Hellenistic settlement named Rhakotis. This literary evidence has fuelled contentious scholarly debate for decades. Here we present new geochemical data from Alexandria's ancient bay sediments, elucidating… 

Alexandria, Egypt, before Alexander the Great: A multidisciplinary approach yields rich discoveries

Historic records refer to Rhakotis as a settlement on Egypt’s Mediterranean coast before Alexander the Great founded the famous Mediterranean port city of Alexandria in B.C. 332. Little is known of

Tracing the Alkinoos Harbor of ancient Kerkyra, Greece, and reconstructing its paleotsunami history

In this study, the Alkinoos Harbor of ancient Corfu was investigated by means of geomorphological and sedimentological methods in order to reconstruct the ancient harbor's construction, its period of

A 6000-year geochemical record of human activities from Alexandria (Egypt)

Demise of a harbor: a geochemical chronicle from Ephesus

Alexandria's Eastern Harbor, Egypt: Pollen, Microscopic Charcoal, and the Transition from Natural to Human-Modified Basin

Abstract STANLEY, J.-D. and BERNHARDT, C.E., 2010. Alexandria's Eastern Harbor, Egypt: Pollen, microscopic charcoal, and the transition from natural to human-modified basin. Pollen and microscopic

Benthic foraminiferal assemblages of the imperial harbor of Claudius (Rome): Further paleoenvironmental and geoarcheological evidences

This paper presents a paleoenvironmental reconstruction of historical development in the area of the ancient harbor of Claudius based on micropaleontological and sedimentological data. Benthic

Human impact on Holocene sediment dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean – the example of the Roman harbour of Ephesus

During the past millennia, many erosion and accumulation processes have been modified by anthropogenic impact. This holds especially true for the environs of ancient settlements and their harbours



Trace metal accumulations in soils on and around ancient settlements in Greece.

This paper describes recent studies of trace metal and magnetic enhancements in soils on and around ancient settlements in Boeotia, central Greece. The investigations were conducted as part of the


Several hundred new stable lead isotope ratio determinations of ore and slag specimens from ancient mining sites throughout Anatolia and of samples of artefacts of the Chalcolithic, Bronze Age and

Geochemistry of Holocene Sediments from the Nile Delta

Clay-size fractions of Holocene (to > 7,500 years BP) core samples (n = 173) from lagoonal/marsh, delta-front and prodelta facies in the northeast sector of the Nile delta were analyzed for 23

Heavy metal and hydrocarbon pollution in recent sediments from southampton water, southern England: a geochemical and isotopic study.

A sediment core from Southampton Water, a coastal plain estuary, has been investigated and is shown to provide a record of pollution following the expansion of the Fawley oil refinery in 1949-1951, indicating a significant post-1950 use of lead derived from ancient, non-U.K. (Precambrian) ores in local industry.