Pollinator shifts drive increasingly long nectar spurs in columbine flowers

  title={Pollinator shifts drive increasingly long nectar spurs in columbine flowers},
  author={Justen B. Whittall and Scott A. Hodges},
Directional evolutionary trends have long garnered interest because they suggest that evolution can be predictable. However, the identification of the trends themselves and the underlying processes that may produce them have often been controversial. In 1862, in explaining the exceptionally long nectar spur of Angraecum sesquipedale, Darwin proposed that a coevolutionary ‘race’ had driven the directional increase in length of a plant’s spur and its pollinator’s tongue. Thus he predicted the… CONTINUE READING
Highly Influential
This paper has highly influenced 14 other papers. REVIEW HIGHLY INFLUENTIAL CITATIONS
163 Citations
33 References
Similar Papers


Publications citing this paper.
Showing 1-10 of 163 extracted citations


Publications referenced by this paper.
Showing 1-10 of 33 references

Sphingidae, Macroglossinae)

  • A. K. Hundsdoerfer, I. J. Kitching, Wink, M. A molecular phylogeny of the hawkmoth genus Hyles Lepidoptera
  • Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 35, 442–458
  • 2005

A modelling approach for adaptive evolution

  • M. A. Butler, King, A. A. Phylogenetic comparative analysis
  • Am. Nat. 164, 683–695
  • 2004

Mesquite: A modular system for evolutionary analysis

  • W. P. Maddison, D. R. Maddison
  • 2004

Verne Grant and evolutionary studies of Aquilegia

  • S. A. Hodges, M. Fulton, J. Y. Yang, J. B. Whittall
  • New Phytol. 161,
  • 2004

Similar Papers

Loading similar papers…