Political efficacy and trust: A report on the NES pilot study items

@article{Craig1990PoliticalEA,
  title={Political efficacy and trust: A report on the NES pilot study items},
  author={S. Craig and R. Niemi and G. Silver},
  journal={Political Behavior},
  year={1990},
  volume={12},
  pages={289-314}
}
Political efficacy and trust—among the most frequently used survey measures of general political attitudes—are often maligned for their lack of reliability and validity. This paper reports results from the National Election Studies 1987 pilot study, which included more than thirty-five efficacy and trust items. Five attitudinal dimensions were hypothesized; four emerged clearly. One scale, internal efficacy, is especially robust; a four- to six-item scale represents a considerable improvement… Expand
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