Political, Social, and Cultural Reproduction via Civil Service Examinations in Late Imperial China

@article{Elman1991PoliticalSA,
  title={Political, Social, and Cultural Reproduction via Civil Service Examinations in Late Imperial China},
  author={Benjamin A. Elman},
  journal={The Journal of Asian Studies},
  year={1991},
  volume={50},
  pages={7 - 28}
}
Most previous scholarship about the civil service examination system in imperial China has emphasized the degree of social mobility such examinations permitted in a premodern society. In the same vein, historians have evaluated the examination process in late imperial China from the perspective of the modernization process in modern Europe and the United States. They have thereby successfully exposed the failure of the Confucian system to advance the specialization and training in science that… 

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