Policing Farm Animal Welfare in Federated Nations: The Problem of Dual Federalism in Canada and the USA

@inproceedings{Whiting2013PolicingFA,
  title={Policing Farm Animal Welfare in Federated Nations: The Problem of Dual Federalism in Canada and the USA},
  author={Terry L Whiting},
  booktitle={Animals : an open access journal from MDPI},
  year={2013}
}
In recent European animal welfare statutes, human actions injurious to animals are new "offences" articulated as an injury to societal norms in addition to property damage. A crime is foremost a violation of a community moral standard. Violating a societal norm puts society out of balance and justice is served when that balance is returned. Criminal law normally requires the presence of mens rea, or evil intent, a particular state of mind; however, dereliction of duties towards animals (or… CONTINUE READING