Police Use of Less Lethal Force: Does Administrative Policy Matter?

@article{Terrill2017PoliceUO,
  title={Police Use of Less Lethal Force: Does Administrative Policy Matter?},
  author={William Terrill and Eugene A. Paoline},
  journal={Justice Quarterly},
  year={2017},
  volume={34},
  pages={193 - 216}
}
Scholars have long theorized that constraining police officer discretion via organizational policy improves decision-making. Empirically, prior research shows that more restrictive lethal force policies result in a reduction in the number of police shootings and in racial disparity. Yet, researchers have never examined the impact of less lethal force policies in relation to the full spectrum of less lethal force tactics. In addressing this research void, we examine 3,340 use of force incidents… 
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