Police-Induced Confessions: Risk Factors and Recommendations

  title={Police-Induced Confessions: Risk Factors and Recommendations},
  author={Saul M. Kassin and Steven A. Drizin and Thomas Grisso and Gisli Gudjonsson and Richard A. Leo and Allison D. Redlich},
  journal={Law and Human Behavior},
Recent DNA exonerations have shed light on the problem that people sometimes confess to crimes they did not commit. Drawing on police practices, laws concerning the admissibility of confession evidence, core principles of psychology, and forensic studies involving multiple methodologies, this White Paper summarizes what is known about police-induced confessions. In this review, we identify suspect characteristics (e.g., adolescence; intellectual disability; mental illness; and certain… 
False Confessions
In recent years, DNA exoneration cases have shed light on the problem of false confessions and the wrongful convictions that result. Drawing on basic psychological principles and methods, an
Police-Induced Confessions, Risk Factors, and Recommendations: Looking Ahead
Looking at the literature on police-induced confessions, suspect characteristics and interrogation tactics that influence confessions and their effects on juries are identified and a call for the mandatory electronic recording of interrogations is concluded.
High-Risk Interrogation: Using the “Mr. Big Technique” to Elicit Confessions
A brief review of a relatively recent development in Canadian police investigation practice and how this procedure may increase the likelihood of police-induced false confessions is provided.
Interrogation and False Confessions in Rape Cases
Of the 1,705 post-conviction DNA and non-DNA exonerations that have occurred from 1989 to the end of 2015, approximately 13 percent of these wrongful convictions were due to false confessions, and
Interrogations, confessions, and adolescent offenders' perceptions of the legal system.
A more developmentally appropriate approach to criminal interrogations with youth may simultaneously improve police-youth relations and protect vulnerable suspects in the interrogation room.
How Trauma May Magnify Risk of Involuntary and False Confessions Among Adolescents
Empirical research on police interrogation has identified both personal and situational factors that increase criminal suspects’ vulnerability to involuntary, unreliable, or false confessions.
Interrogative Specialists and False Confessions: Debunking the Con Artist Myth
Within the criminal justice system, confessions are an extremely powerful form of evidence. Unfortunately, innocent people sometimes falsely confess to crimes they did not actually commit. Such
Capacity to Waive Miranda Rights and the Assessment of Susceptibility to Police Coercion
Forensic mental health professionals may be asked by attorneys or judges to evaluate defendants' capacities to have waived Miranda rights and offered admissible confessions during police
When Exoneration Seems Hopeless: The Special Vulnerability of Sexual Abuse Suspects to False Confession
This chapter considers sources of vulnerability among innocent sexual abuse suspects to police-induced false confession. We suggest that sexual abuse suspects may be particularly vulnerable to false
Persons at risk during interrogations in police custody : Different perspectives on vulnerable suspects
A false confession given by a suspect has major implications for the suspect himself or herself, the criminal investigation and ultimately the credibility of police and justice. Mentally vulnerable


Police Interrogations and False Confessions: Current Research, Practice, and Policy Recommendations
Although it is generally believed that wrongful convictions based on false confessions are relatively rare - the 1989 Central Park jogger 'wilding' case being the most notorious example - recent
Basic questions are raised concerning police interrogations, the risk of false confessions, and the impact that such evidence has on a jury. On the basis of available research, it was concluded that
False confessions: causes, consequences, and implications.
  • Richard A. Leo
  • Law
    The journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
  • 2009
Empirical research on the causes and correlates of false confessions is reviewed, including the three psychologically distinct types of false confession (voluntary, compliant, and persuaded), and the consequences of introducing false-confession evidence in the criminal justice system.
Police practices and perceptions regarding juvenile interrogation and interrogative suggestibility.
This investigation is the first standard documentation of the reported interrogation practices of law enforcement and police beliefs about the reliability of these techniques and their knowledge of child development.
Custodial interrogation: What are the background factors associated with claims of false confession to police?
Abstract The aim of this paper is to investigate the association between an alleged false confession during custodial interrogation and reported adverse life events, substance abuse problems,
Perceptions of children during a police interrogation: Guilt, confessions, and interview fairness
Abstract Jurors are often provided with confession evidence and must determine whether the confession was true, false, coerced, or voluntary. As more juveniles are tried in adult criminal court,
The Psychology of Confessions
  • S. Kassin, G. Gudjonsson
  • Psychology
    Psychological science in the public interest : a journal of the American Psychological Society
  • 2004
Recently, in a number of high-profile cases, defendants who were prosecuted, convicted, and sentenced on the basis of false confessions have been exonerated through DNA evidence. As a historical
On the psychology of confessions: does innocence put innocents at risk?
  • S. Kassin
  • Psychology
    The American psychologist
  • 2005
It appears that innocence puts innocents at risk, that consideration should be given to reforming current practices, and that a policy of videotaping interrogations is a necessary means of protection.
Law & psychiatry: mental illness, police interrogations, and the potential for false confession.
Recently, an alarmingly high incidence of wrongful convictions has been documented in the United States, in large part because of “Innocence Projects” that use DNA analyses from crime scenes to
The Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (England and Wales) recognised that suspects with intellectual disabilities were ‘vulnerable’ during interviews with the police. However, no attempt was made