Polarization of immune responses in fish: The 'macrophages first' point of view.

  title={Polarization of immune responses in fish: The 'macrophages first' point of view.},
  author={Geert Frits Wiegertjes and Annelieke S. Wentzel and Herman P. Spaink and Philip M. Elks and Inge R. Fink},
  journal={Molecular immunology},
In this review, we support taking polarized immune responses in teleost fish from a 'macrophage first' point of view, a hypothesis that reverts the dichotomous T helper (TH)1 and TH2 driving forces by building on the idea of conservation of innate immune responses in lower vertebrates. It is plausible that the initial trigger for macrophage polarization into M1 (inflammation) or M2 (healing) could rely only on sensing microbial/parasite infection or other innate danger signals, without the… CONTINUE READING
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