Polarization, Participatory Democracy, and Democratic Erosion in Venezuela’s Twenty-First Century Socialism

  title={Polarization, Participatory Democracy, and Democratic Erosion in Venezuela’s Twenty-First Century Socialism},
  author={Mar{\'i}a Pilar Garc{\'i}a-Guadilla and Ana L. Mall{\'e}n},
  journal={The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science},
  pages={62 - 77}
This article analyzes the emergence and consolidation of political polarization in Venezuela during the so-called Bolivarian Revolution, led by Hugo Chávez and his successor Nicolás Maduro from 1999 to 2018. We also examine the conditions under which polarization in Venezuela became pernicious, and contributed to erosion of democracy. Given the underlying class cleavages that were associated with pro- and anti-Chavista identities, we argue that the central dimension of polarization began with a… Expand
Populism in Europe: An Illiberal Democratic Response to Undemocratic Liberalism (The Government and Opposition/Leonard Schapiro Lecture 2019)
  • C. Mudde
  • Political Science
  • Government and Opposition
  • 2021
Abstract In this lecture, I lay out my approach to populism, which falls within the now dominant ‘ideational approach’ of populism, discuss the complex relationship between populism and politics, andExpand
Democracia participativa, protestas sociales y autoritarismo en el socialismo del siglo XXI: el movimiento estudiantil venezolano
Following a political opportunities structure approach and the notion of collective identity, one of the objectives of this work is to analyze the mobilizations and cycles of protest in which theExpand
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Faceless government: civic action in media photographs during the Venezuelan anti-governmental protests of 2017
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Anhand des Falles Venezuela konnen die Implikationen und Folgen des Populismus an der Macht uber einen langeren Zeitraum nachgezeichnet werden. Zwischen 1999 und 2013 stutzte sich das Regime vorExpand


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As political and societal polarization deepens, democracies are under stress around the world. This article examines the complex relationship and causal direction between democracy and polarizationExpand
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This article argues that a common pattern and set of dynamics characterizes severe political and societal polarization in different contexts around the world, with pernicious consequences forExpand
Paradoxes of Polarization: Democracy’s Inherent Division and the (Anti-) Populist Challenge
This article carries out a theoretical analysis of the relationship between democracy and polarization. It utilizes examples from a variety of premodern and modern societies to argue that differenceExpand
Programs of economic liberalization have many common features all over the world, but they do not necessarily have the same consequences. Differences in their effects reflect differences in theExpand
Burguesías exportadoras: ¿un camino para el desarrollo de América Latina? El caso de la Argentina reciente
Resumen es: Se intenta aportar al debate sobre posibles consecuencias de los intentos latinoamericanos de generar un crecimiento liderado por las exportaciones y los...