Polarity of concavo-convex intervertebral joints in the necks and tails of sauropod dinosaurs

@article{Fronimos2016PolarityOC,
  title={Polarity of concavo-convex intervertebral joints in the necks and tails of sauropod dinosaurs},
  author={John A. Fronimos and JEFFREY A. Wilson and Tomasz K. Baumiller},
  journal={Paleobiology},
  year={2016},
  volume={42},
  pages={624 - 642}
}
Abstract. The highly elongated necks, and often tails, of sauropod dinosaurs were composed of concavo-convex vertebrae that provided stability without compromising mobility. Polarities of these concavo-convex joints in the neck and tail are anatomically opposite one another but mechanically equivalent. Opisthocoelous cervical vertebrae and procoelous caudal vertebrae have the convex articular face directed away from the body and the concave articular face directed toward the body. This… 
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