Polar ocean stratification in a cold climate

@article{Sigman2004PolarOS,
  title={Polar ocean stratification in a cold climate},
  author={Daniel M. Sigman and Samuel Laurent Jaccard and Gerald H. Haug},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2004},
  volume={428},
  pages={59-63}
}
The low-latitude ocean is strongly stratified by the warmth of its surface water. As a result, the great volume of the deep ocean has easiest access to the atmosphere through the polar surface ocean. In the modern polar ocean during the winter, the vertical distribution of temperature promotes overturning, with colder water over warmer, while the salinity distribution typically promotes stratification, with fresher water over saltier. However, the sensitivity of seawater density to temperature… 

Polar stratification: A critical view from the Southern Ocean

Effect of global ocean temperature change on deep ocean ventilation

[1] A growing number of paleoceanographic observations suggest that the ocean’s deep ventilation is stronger in warm climates than in cold climates. Here we use a general ocean circulation model to

Sea‐Ice Induced Southern Ocean Subsurface Warming and Surface Cooling in a Warming Climate

Much of the Southern Ocean surface south of 55° S cooled and freshened between at least the early 1980s and the early 2010s. Many processes have been proposed to explain the unexpected cooling,

Expedition 383 summary

The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), the world’s strongest zonal current system, connects all three major ocean basins of the global ocean and therefore integrates and responds to global climate

North Pacific seasonality and the glaciation of North America 2.7 million years ago

TLDR
It is suggested that the observed summer warming extended into the autumn, providing water vapour to northern North America, where it precipitated and accumulated as snow, and thus allowed the initiation of Northern Hemisphere glaciation.

Tropical Ocean Temperatures Over the Past 3.5 Million Years

TLDR
Alkenone-based tropical SST records from the major ocean basins show coherent glacial-interglacial temperature changes of 1° to 3°C that align with (but slightly lead) global changes in ice volume and deep ocean temperature over the past 3.5 million years, interpreted to reflect “top-down” forcing through the atmosphere.

Midlatitude westerlies, atmospheric CO2, and climate change during the ice ages

[1] An idealized general circulation model is constructed of the ocean's deep circulation and CO2 system that explains some of the more puzzling features of glacial-interglacial CO2 cycles, including

Antarctic Stratification, Atmospheric Water Vapor, and Heinrich Events: a Hypothesis for Late Pleistocene Deglaciations

We have previously argued that the Antarctic and subarctic North Pacific are stratified during ice ages, causing to a large degree the observed low CO2 levels of ice age atmospheres by sequestering

Antarctic role in Northern Hemisphere glaciation

TLDR
A substantial fraction of the sea level fall actually occurred before the Northern Hemispheric ice sheets began to grow rapidly, probably because of continental ice growth in Antarctica, which has implications for the stability of the Antarctic ice sheet in a warming world.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 53 REFERENCES

The Effect of Cold Climate upon North Atlantic Deep Water Formation in a Simple Ocean-Atmosphere Model

The sensitivity of North Atlantic Deep Water formation to variations in mean surface temperature is explored with a meridional-vertical plane ocean model coupled to an energy balance atmosphere. It

The Salinity, Temperature, and δ18O of the Glacial Deep Ocean

We use pore fluid measurements of the chloride concentration and the oxygen isotopic composition from Ocean Drilling Program cores to reconstruct salinity and temperature of the deep ocean during the

Simulation of abrupt climate change induced by freshwater input to the North Atlantic Ocean

TEMPERATURE records from Greenland ice cores1,2 suggest that large and abrupt changes of North Atlantic climate occurred frequently during both glacial and postglacial periods; one example is the

Onset of permanent stratification in the subarctic Pacific Ocean

The surface waters of the modern subarctic Pacific Ocean are isolated from the nutrient-rich waters below by a steep vertical gradient in salinity (halocline), a feature which is a dominant control

Response of the thermohaline circulation to cold climates

[1] A coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice-land surface-ice sheet model of intermediate complexity, the so-called McGill Paleoclimate Model, is employed to study the response of the thermohaline

Cenozoic biogenic silica sedimentation in the Antarctic Ocean, based on two deep sea drilling project sites

The Antarctic Ocean during Cenozoic time experienced four periods of enhanced siliceous productivity. The beginning of the Miocene and the Pliocene-Quaternary are the two major periods. The

Physical mechanisms behind biogeochemical glacial‐interglacial CO2 variations

The atmospheric concentration of CO2 has undergone significant and fairly regular changes on a time scale of 100 kyr during the at least last four glacial‐interglacial cycles. Here we present a novel

Contribution of Southern Ocean surface-water stratification to low atmospheric CO2 concentrations during the last glacial period

The nitrogen-isotope record preserved in Southern Ocean sediments, along with several geochemical tracers for the settling fluxes of biogenic matter, reveals patterns of past nutrient supply to

A new model for the role of the oceans in determining atmospheric PCO2

Recent ice-core measurements have revealed that the atmospheric CO2 level increased comparatively rapidly by about 70 p.p.m. at the end of the last ice age1. Here we present an ocean–atmosphere model
...