Polar ocean stratification in a cold climate

  title={Polar ocean stratification in a cold climate},
  author={Daniel M. Sigman and Samuel Laurent Jaccard and Gerald H. Haug},
The low-latitude ocean is strongly stratified by the warmth of its surface water. As a result, the great volume of the deep ocean has easiest access to the atmosphere through the polar surface ocean. In the modern polar ocean during the winter, the vertical distribution of temperature promotes overturning, with colder water over warmer, while the salinity distribution typically promotes stratification, with fresher water over saltier. However, the sensitivity of seawater density to temperature… 

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