Polar and lateral flagellar motors of marine Vibrio are driven by different ion-motive forces

  title={Polar and lateral flagellar motors of marine Vibrio are driven by different ion-motive forces},
  author={Tatsuo Atsumi and Linda McCartert and Yasuo Imae},
VARIOUS species of marine Vibrio produce two distinct types of flagella, each adapted for a different type of motility1. A single, sheathed polar flagellum is suited for swimming in liquid medium, and numerous unsheathed lateral flagella, which are produced only under viscous conditions, are suited for swarming over viscous surfaces2-3. Both types of flagella are driven by reversible motors embedded in the cytoplasmic membrane. Here we report that the energy source for the polar flagellar motor… 
Sodium‐driven motor of the polar flagellum in marine bacteria Vibrio
This review summarized recent results of the Na+‐driven motor in the polar flagellum of Vibrio, a marine bacterium that enables it to swim in liquid.
Dual Flagellar Systems Enable Motility under Different Circumstances
  • L. McCarter
  • Biology
    Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • 2004
This review focuses on the polar and lateral flagellar systems of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which have been identified encoding distinct structural, motor, export/assembly, and regulatory elements.
The sodium‐driven polar flagellar motor of marine Vibrio as the mechanosensor that regulates lateral flagellar expression
Results indicate that marine Vibrio sense a decrease in the rotation rate of the polar flagellar motor as a trigger for Iaf induction, which is similar to that observed when viscosity was changed.
The Polar Flagellar Motor of Vibrio cholerae Is Driven by an Na+ Motive Force
The Na+ dependence and the sensitivity to the Na+ motor-specific inhibitor of the motility of the V. cholerae strains are examined and evidence that the polar flagellar motor of V.cholerae is driven by an Na+ motive force is presented.
The bidirectional polar and unidirectional lateral flagellar motors of Vibrio alginolyticus are controlled by a single CheY species
It is shown that both swimming and surface‐swarming of V.’alginolyticus involve chemotaxis and are regulated by a single CheY species, implying that CheY interacts with the two motors differently.
Na(+)-driven flagellar motor of Vibrio.
Isolation of the polar and lateral flagellum-defective mutants in Vibrio alginolyticus and identification of their flagellar driving energy sources
It is demonstrated that the energy sources of the lateral and polar flagellar motors in V. alginolyticus are H+ and Na+ motive forces, respectively, as in the related species V. parahaemolyticUS.
Bacterial lateral flagella: an inducible flagella system.
Flagella are complex surface organelles that allow bacteria to move towards favourable environments and that contribute to the virulence of pathogenic bacteria through adhesion and biofilm formation
Flagellar motors of marine bacteria Halomonas are driven by both protons and sodium ions.
The results showed that the flagellar motors of the Halomonas strains were energized by both H+ and Na+ in one cell, which may reflect ecophysiological versatility to adapt to a wide range of salt conditions of the marine environment.
Flagellar motility in bacteria structure and function of flagellar motor.


Na+-driven bacterial flagellar motors
  • Y. Imae, T. Atsumi
  • Chemistry, Biology
    Journal of bioenergetics and biomembranes
  • 1989
The current status of research on the rotation mechanism of the Na+-driven flagellar motors is summarized, which introduces several new aspects in the analysis.
A protonmotive force drives bacterial flagella.
It is concluded that the flagella are driven by a protonmotive force, and when starved cells are suspended in a potassium-free medium containing both valinomycin and an attractant, many cells initially run rather than twiddle.
Surface‐induced swarmer cell differentiation of Vibrio parahaemoiyticus
Studying surface‐induced differentiation could reveal a novel mechanism of gene control and lead to an understanding of the processes of surface colonization by pathogens and other bacteria.
Intracellular Na+ kinetically interferes with the rotation of the Na(+)-driven flagellar motors of Vibrio alginolyticus.
The results indicate that the absolute concentration of the intracellular Na+ is a determinant of the rotation rate of the Na(+)-driven flagellar motors of V. alginolyticus.
Specific inhibition of the Na(+)-driven flagellar motors of alkalophilic Bacillus strains by the amiloride analog phenamil
Phenamil was found to be a specific and potent inhibitor for the Na(+)-driven flaggellar motors not only in various strains of alkalophilic Bacillus spp.
Structure and Arrangement of Flagella in Species of the Genus Beneckea and Photobacterium fischeri
Only one group (B-2) of marine bacteria included in this study was found to have polar, unsheathed flagella.