Poisoning with the recreational drug paramethoxyamphetamine (“death”)

@article{Ling2001PoisoningWT,
  title={Poisoning with the recreational drug paramethoxyamphetamine (“death”)},
  author={Liang Han Ling and Colin Marchant and Nicholas Alan Buckley and Michael Prior and Rod J Irvine},
  journal={Medical Journal of Australia},
  year={2001},
  volume={174}
}
To describe the clinical features of paramethoxyamphetamine (PMA; “death”) poisoning and to compare these with those of people with self‐reported “ecstasy” poisoning. 
Dancing with “Death”: P-Methoxyamphetamine Overdose and Its Acute Management
TLDR
A case of PMA overdose in South Australia is reported, the literature on PMA overdoses is reviewed, and suggestions on the management of overdose with this dangerous drug are offered.
An Update on Street and Club Drugs: What Clinicians Need to Know
A review of the pharmacological and symptomatic effects of various classes of designer drugs, including stimulants, hallucinogens, and sedatives.
Fatality due to combined use of the designer drugs MDMA and PMA: a distribution study.
TLDR
The medico-legal findings were compatible with a disseminated intravascular coagulation induced by hyperthermia caused by the simultaneous intake of the amphetamine analogues.
Teenage toxins: Recreational poisoning in the adolescent
  • N. Gunja
  • Medicine
    Journal of paediatrics and child health
  • 2012
TLDR
The clinician needs to be aware of the variety of pharmacologically active substances available in the recreational marketplace in order to diagnose and manage teenagers presenting to hospital with toxidromes.
Para-methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA): A study of risk factors for fatal intoxication with emphasis on metabolite pattern and CYP genetics
TLDR
All fatalities attributed to PMMA had high PMMA blood concentrations compared to non-fatal cases, and a public warning is warranted against use and overdose with illegal ‘‘ecstasy’’ or “‘speed”’ drugs.
Death and paramethoxyamphetamine — an evolving problem
TLDR
Death in each of the cases described here was due to PMA toxicity with hyperthermia, as it is well recognised that PMA has a much greater propensity to produce adverse effects than other ring-derivative amphetamines.
Severe paramethoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) and paramethoxyamphetamine (PMA) outbreak in Israel
TLDR
An outbreak of PMMA and PMA poisoning resulting in 24 fatalities, and the post mortem whole blood and urine concentrations of these two compounds, was reported, suggesting PMA was probably the result of PMA metabolism.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 15 REFERENCES
PMA deaths in Ontario.
  • G. Cimbura
  • Medicine
    Canadian Medical Association journal
  • 1974
TLDR
A new street-drug, para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA), recently made its appearance in Ontario and appears to have a powerful hallucinogenic effect as well as a marked toxicity to the central nervous system.
Recent paramethoxyamphetamine deaths.
Adverse Reactions with 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ‘Ecstasy’)
TLDR
As the popularity of MDMA has increased, so have reports of adverse nonpsychiatric and psychiatric consequences associated with use of the drug, and it is possible that some individuals with no apparent abnormalities might develop complications over time.
Amphetamine derivative fatalities in South Australia--is "Ecstasy" the culprit?
TLDR
The number of deaths due to amphetamine derivatives apparently due to substitution of PMA for MDMA (Ecstasy) have recently increased markedly in Adelaide, and potential users are warned that PMA has a much higher rate of lethal complications than other designer drugs, and that no guarantee can be made that tablets sold as Ecstasy are not PMA.
Ecstasy (3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine): History, Neurochemistry, and Toxicology
TLDR
The history, neurochemistry, and toxicology of MDMA, as well as providing some guidance regarding management of toxic ingestion, can arm the provider with valuable information for use in the acute setting and assist providers in counseling young adults regarding the possible consequences of using this substance.
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy"): pharmacology and toxicology in animals and humans.
TLDR
Improved recognition of MDMA-related syndromes is hoped to provide insight into the function of serotonin in the human brain, in health as well as disease.
Ten years of ‘ecstasy’
  • C. Milroy
  • Chemistry
    Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine
  • 1999
TLDR
The 'rave' movement, which spawned the widespread use of ecstasy, is now 10 years old and its history and the medical problems that have resulted are reviewed.
Amphetamine, not MDMA, is associated with intracranial hemorrhage.
TLDR
To lower the frequency of overlooked Achilles tendon rupture, any doubt as to whether a ruptured Achilles tendon is present should result in a lateral soft tissue roentgenographic examination of the ankle in all age groups.
‘Designer Drugs’
TLDR
The most extensively studied class of psychoactive compounds is the phenylethylamines (mescaline analogues), which includes catecholamines, therapeutic agents and numerous illicit derivatives.
...
...