Poison Frog Colors Are Honest Signals of Toxicity, Particularly for Bird Predators

  title={Poison Frog Colors Are Honest Signals of Toxicity, Particularly for Bird Predators},
  author={Martine E. Maan and Molly E. Cummings},
  journal={The American Naturalist},
  pages={E1 - E14}
  • M. MaanM. Cummings
  • Published 1 December 2011
  • Biology, Environmental Science
  • The American Naturalist
Antipredator defenses and warning signals typically evolve in concert. [] Key Result Using a mouse-based toxicity assay, we find extreme variation in toxicity between frog populations. This variation is significantly positively correlated with frog coloration brightness, a viewer-independent measure of visual conspicuousness (i.e., total reflectance flux). We also examine conspicuousness from the view of three potential predator taxa, as well as conspecific frogs, using taxon-specific visual detection models…

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An Analysis of Predator Selection to Affect Aposematic Coloration in a Poison Frog Species

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Intrasexual selection and warning color evolution in an aposematic poison dart frog

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The interplay between multiple predators and prey colour divergence

Evidence is provided for the interplay among distinct selective pressures, from multiple-predator taxa, acting on the divergence in protective coloration of prey species in populations where relatively cryptic green morphs have evolved.

Conspicuous displays in cryptic males of a polytypic poison-dart frog

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Diversity in warning coloration is easily recognized by avian predators

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Warning signal properties covary with toxicity but not testosterone or aggregate carotenoids in a poison frog

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Warning Signal Brightness Variation: Sexual Selection May Work under the Radar of Natural Selection in Populations of a Polytypic Poison Frog

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The role of predator selection on polymorphic aposematic poison frogs

A purifying role for predator selection is demonstrated, as brightly coloured novel forms are more likely to suffer an attack than both local aposematic and cryptic forms, and colour patterns of poison frogs may truly represent a ‘magic trait’.

A mechanism for diversity in warning signals: conspicuousness versus toxicity in poison frogs.

It is demonstrated that closely related species use alternative strategies: increasing either conspicuousness or toxicity affords equivalent avoidance by predators and provides protection to nontoxic mimic species, providing a mechanism for natural diversity in warning signals.

Female Preferences for Aposematic Signal Components in a Polymorphic Poison Frog

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The evolution of coloration and toxicity in the poison frog family (Dendrobatidae)

  • K. SummersM. Clough
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2001
Comparative analysis of the evolutionary relationships among representative species of poison frogs indicated a significant correlation between the evolution of toxicity and coloration across this family, consistent with the hypothesis that coloration in this group is aposematic.

Sexual dimorphism and directional sexual selection on aposematic signals in a poison frog

The results show that sexual selection should not be ignored in studies of aposematic evolution and document sexual dimorphism in vertebrate warning coloration.

Phenotypic and genetic divergence in three species of dart-poison frogs with contrasting parental behavior.

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