Pneumococcal vaccines: mechanism of action, impact on epidemiology and adaption of the species.

@article{Pletz2008PneumococcalVM,
  title={Pneumococcal vaccines: mechanism of action, impact on epidemiology and adaption of the species.},
  author={Mathias W Pletz and Ulrich A Maus and Norbert Krug and Tobias Welte and Hartmut M. Lode},
  journal={International journal of antimicrobial agents},
  year={2008},
  volume={32 3},
  pages={
          199-206
        }
}

Immunological responses associated with the use of a putative dual vaccine against Hepatitis B Virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae

Both PiaA and PiuA produced a level of protection against S. pneumoniae and the vaccination appeared to prevent invasive disease by significantly lowering numbers of the bacteria in the blood, though signs of infection were present from examination of lung tissue and presence of bacteria in lungs.

Focus on pneumococcal vaccines and nasopharyngeal carriage

The accumulated experience shows that the herd immunity, due to PCV, is partly offset by replacement of the vaccine serotypes by other, nonvaccine serotypes, so the possibility of more virulent non vaccines arising cannot be ignored and should be the focus of continued surveillance.

Invasive pneumococcal disease in children: cross‐disciplinary frameworks

  • R. Stein
  • Medicine
    International journal of clinical practice
  • 2014
The highest risk of invasive disease was among children with hematological malignancies and those who are immunocompromised, particularly as a result of HIV infection, while cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal conditions, and certain congenital diseases, increased the risk ratios to a lesser degree.

Continued control of pneumococcal disease in the UK - the impact of vaccination.

Shifts in serotype distribution have been detected for both non-invasive and invasive disease reported since PCV7 introduction, both in the UK and elsewhere, while the potential coverage of the 10- and 13-valent conjugate vaccines has also altered alongside serotype shifts.

Experience with pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (conjugated to CRM197 carrier protein) in children and adults.

Presentations on pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (conjugated to CRM197 carrier protein) given during the integrated symposium organized and funded by Pfizer International Operations during the 22nd European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, London, UK are summarized.

Pneumococcal vaccination in adults: does it really work?

Host immunity in the protective response to nasal immunization with a pneumococcal antigen associated to live and heat-killed Lactobacillus casei

Considering the potential risk associated with live bacteria, the design of a nasal vaccine based on pneumococcal antigens and heat-killed L. casei emerges as a safe and effective strategy for the prevention of pneumococal infections and opens new possibilities of application of dead LAB as adjuvants in vaccine formulations against other pathogens.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 39 REFERENCES

Efficacy of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against acute otitis media.

The heptavalent pneumococcal polysaccharide-CRM197 conjugate vaccine is safe and efficacious in the prevention of acute otitis media caused by the serotypes included in the vaccine.

The effect of polyvalent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine on nasopharyngeal and nasal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Streptococcus pneumoniae was more often cultured from nasopharyngeal than nasal swabs, especially in children over 6 years, whereas the total carriage rates of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae were largely unaffected by age.

Effect of introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae.

The rate of antibiotic-resistant invasive pneumococcal infections decreased in young children and older persons after the introduction of the conjugate vaccine, and there was an increase in infections caused by serotypes not included in the vaccine.

Vaccine Escape Recombinants Emerge after Pneumococcal Vaccination in the United States

This is the first time a single recombinational event has been documented in vivo that resulted in both a change of serotype and penicillin nonsusceptibility, and has the potential to reduce PCV7 effectiveness in the longer term.

Levofloxacin-Resistant Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States: Evidence for Clonal Spread and the Impact of Conjugate Pneumococcal Vaccine

The results suggest that invasive pneumococcal isolates resistant to levofloxacin in the United States show considerable evidence of multiple resistance and of clonal spread.

Relationship between Surface Accessibility for PpmA, PsaA, and PspA and Antibody-Mediated Immunity to Systemic Infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae

Three pneumococcal proteins are evaluated with respect to relative accessibility to antibody, in the context of intact pneumococci, and their ability to elicit protection against systemic infection by encapsulated S. pneumoniae is evaluated.

Molecular epidemiology of penicillin-non-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from children with invasive pneumococcal disease in Germany.

  • R. ReinertM. P. van der Linden R. von Kries
  • Medicine, Biology
    Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
  • 2007
The study illustrated the genetic heterogeneity of antibiotic-resistant pneumococcal isolates in Germany by revealing that sequence type (ST) 156 (Spain9V-3 clone) and its single-locus variant ST 557 were widespread in Germany.

Pre- and Postvaccination Clonal Compositions of Invasive Pneumococcal Serotypes for Isolates Collected in the United States in 1999, 2001, and 2002

Constant genotypic surveillance is warranted, since certain clones not targeted by PCV7 are expanding, and their emergence as significant pathogens could occur with maintained vaccine pressure.

Immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide vaccines in 18-month-old infants.

The results suggest that more than one-half of nonimmune 18-month-old infants will not respond to PRP with protective levels of antibody, and recommendation for revaccination at 24 months of age for those immunized at any younger age is appropriate.