Pluripotent stem cells induced from adult neural stem cells by reprogramming with two factors

@article{Kim2008PluripotentSC,
  title={Pluripotent stem cells induced from adult neural stem cells by reprogramming with two factors},
  author={Jeong Beom Kim and Holm Zaehres and Guangming Wu and Luca Gentile and Kinarm Ko and Vittorio Sebastiano and Marcos Jes{\'u}s Ara{\'u}zo-Bravo and David Ruau and Dong Wook Han and Martin Zenke and Hans Robert Sch{\"o}ler},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2008},
  volume={454},
  pages={646-650}
}
Reprogramming of somatic cells is a valuable tool to understand the mechanisms of regaining pluripotency and further opens up the possibility of generating patient-specific pluripotent stem cells. Reprogramming of mouse and human somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells, designated as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, has been possible with the expression of the transcription factor quartet Oct4 (also known as Pou5f1), Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4 (refs 1–11). Considering that ectopic expression… 
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It is found that the generation of one-factor (1F) human iPS cells from human NSCs is possible by the ectopic expression of OCT4 alone, and this findings demonstrate that the transcription factor OCT4 is sufficient to reprogram mouse and human N SCs into pluripotent cells.
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TLDR
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The Efficient Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) Cells from Adult Mouse Adipose Tissue-Derived and Neural Stem Cells
TLDR
This study demonstrates the direct reprogramming of a defined population of neural stem cells (NSCs) and adipose tissue-derived cells (ADCs) from adult mice using retroviral transduction of the Yamanaka factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc, and confirms that ADCs are an ideal candidate as a readily accessible somatic cell type for high efficiency establishment of iPS cell lines.
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TLDR
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EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS / INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS Oct 4 and Klf 4 Reprogram Dermal Papilla Cells Into Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
TLDR
Dermal papilla cells are established as an easily accessible source to generate iPS cells with efficiency and with less genetic material, opening up the possibility of streamlined generation of skin-derived, patient-specific pluripotent stem cells and of ultimately replacing the remaining two factors with small molecules for safe generation of transplantable cells.
Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells with high efficiency from human embryonic renal cortical cells.
TLDR
It is shown that four Yamanaka factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc can convert human embryonic renal cortical cells (hERCCs) to pluripotent stem cells with a roughly 40-fold higher reprogramming efficiency compared with that of adult human dermal fibroblasts.
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References

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TLDR
A modified protocol for the generation of iPS cells that does not require the Myc retrovirus is described and, with this protocol, significantly fewer non-iPS background cells are obtained, and theiPS cells generated were consistently of high quality.
Reprogramming of human somatic cells to pluripotency with defined factors
TLDR
The data demonstrate that defined factors can reprogramme human cells to pluripotency, and establish a method whereby patient-specific cells might be established in culture.
Generation of germline-competent induced pluripotent stem cells
TLDR
iPS cells competent for germline chimaeras can be obtained from fibroblasts, but retroviral introduction of c-Myc should be avoided for clinical application.
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Somatic cell nuclear transfer allows trans-acting factors present in the mammalian oocyte to reprogram somatic cell nuclei to an undifferentiated state. We show that four factors (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG,
Direct reprogramming of genetically unmodified fibroblasts into pluripotent stem cells
TLDR
It is demonstrated that reprogrammed pluripotent cells can be isolated from genetically unmodified somatic donor cells solely based upon morphological criteria.
Generation of Pluripotent Stem Cells from Adult Mouse Liver and Stomach Cells
TLDR
Genetic lineage tracings suggest that iPS cells are generated by direct reprogramming of lineage-committed somatic cells and that retroviral integration into specific sites is not required.
Nuclei of Embryonic Stem Cells Reprogram Somatic Cells
TLDR
It is concluded that the Oct4 reprogramming capacity resides in the ESC karyoplast and that gene reactivation is independent of DNA replication and cell division.
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