Pleural effusions: the diagnostic separation of transudates and exudates.

  title={Pleural effusions: the diagnostic separation of transudates and exudates.},
  author={Richard W. Light and M I Macgregor and Peter C. Luchsinger and Wilmot C. Ball},
  journal={Annals of internal medicine},
  volume={77 4},
Abstract In this prospective study of 150 pleural effusions, the utility of pleural-fluid cell counts, protein levels, and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) levels for the separation of transudates from e... 
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The frequency and radiographical characteristics of pleural effusions in a large population of patients with acute pulmonary embolism were described and the pleural fluid biochemistry in those patients who underwent diagnostic thoracentesis was characterized. Expand
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The evaluation of pleural effusions in children differ from that of the adult in cause, symptom presentation, character of the fluid, techniques for diagnosis, treatment or management, and prognosis.Expand
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This review provides a structured approach to the investigation of the patient with a pleural effusion that should allow an accurate diagnosis to be made with the minimum number of invasive and time-consuming investigations. Expand
Differentiating Pleural Effusions: Criteria Based on Pleural Fluid Cholesterol
Methods: Patients with pleural effusion during a 6-month period were enrolled in the study and underwent thoracentesis. Pleural fluid was analyzed for the levels of protein, lactate dehydrogenaseExpand
[Collection and preservation of the pleural fluid and pleural biopsy].
  • L. Antonangelo, V. Capelozzi
  • Medicine
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  • 2006
The samples of pleural fluid obtained by thoracentesis for the diagnosis of transudates and exudates shall follow a routine of collection and preservation for an appropriate laboratorial analysis.Expand
Pleural effusions. 1. Preliminary evaluation--recognition of the transudate.
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  • Medicine
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  • 1986
Part 1 of this two-part article describes how to document the presence and location of pleural effusion, perform thoracentesis, and differentiate transudates from exudates. If the pleural fluid isExpand
Diagnostic studies of pleural fluid.
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  • Medicine
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Proper management of a pleural effusion depends usually on an exact diagnosis of the underlying disease. In a few cases the cause of the accumulation of fluid remains unknown despite thorough studyExpand


Clinical value of measurements of concentration of protein in pleural fluid.
It is shown that the specific gravity of the fluid was of limited value in differentiating the transuda... Expand
The clinical significance of lactic dehydrogenase activity of serous effusions.
Observations from tissue culture studies suggest that malignant neoplastic cells contribute increasing amounts of lactic dehydrogenase (LD) activity to the fluid medium which contributes to the formation of polypeptide-like particles in the blood. Expand
Lactic dehydrogenase activity of effusion fluids as an aid to differential diagnosis.
The hypothesis, that effusions gained LDH from adjacent malignant cells, suggested that such a relationship might exist and the presence or absence of malignancy was indicated by the relative activities of the enzyme lactic dehydrogenase in the patient's serum and effusion fluid. Expand
Pleural Fluid Lactic Acid Dehydrogenase Activity: Value in Diagnosis
The results indicate that the pleural fluid LDH activity of 550 units serves better than protein in differentiating exudative effusions from transudatives effusions. Expand
Metastatic carcinoma of the pleura.
The subject of pleural involvement by secondary carcinoma is only briefly mentioned by Spencer (1962), and yet it is of interest since its pathogenesis and the factors influencing the appearance of effusions are poorly understood. Expand
Clinical study of lactic acid dehydrogenase.
Summary 1.The serum lactic acid dehydrogenase (SLD) activity of 36 apparently healthy adults was studied. Normal activity ranged from 100 to 330 units per milliliter, with a mean of 185 ± 109 unitsExpand
Absorption force of the capillaries of the visceral pleura in determination of the intrapleural pressure.
From the results and theoretical considerations it appears that the negative intrapleural pressure is the result of the net absorption pressure of the visceral pleura, which is higher than the elastic retraction force of the lung and therefore it holds the visceral and the parietal pleura together. Expand
Lactic Dehydrogenase Activity in Blood.∗
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Lactic dehydrogenase like serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase rises in a characteristic fashion following myocardial infarction, and is associated with a rise in serum lactic dehydrogensase activity. Expand
Genetic control of lactate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase isozymes in cultures of lymphocytes and granulocytes: effect of addition of phytohemagglutinin, actinomycin D or puromycin.
The results indicate that in lymphocytes phytohemagglutinin acts at the two genetic loci controlling synthesis of muscle- and heart-type (M- and H-)lactate dehydrogenase polypeptide subunits. Expand