Mobility and hydrodynamic implications of the long neck in plesiosaurs
Plesiosaurs are extinct marine reptiles that lived during the Mesozoic, well-known for their unique body plan with two pairs of flippers and an elongated neck. What this long neck was used for is…
Ecomorphology of plesiosaur flipper geometry
New data on the aspect ratios (ARs) of plesiosaur flippers is presented, and interprets these data via comparison with AR in birds, bats and aircraft, which agree with previous assessments of maximum swimming speed.
The locomotory apparatus and paraxial swimming in fossil and living marine reptiles: comparing Nothosauroidea, Plesiosauria, and Chelonioidea
The terrestrial origins of the diapsid Sauropterygia and Testudines are uncertain, with the latter being highly controversially discussed to this day. For only 15 Ma, Nothosauroidea lived in…
FUNCTIONAL MORPHOLOGY AND HYDRODYNAMICS OF PLESIOSAUR NECKS: DOES SIZE MATTER?
- GeologyJournal of Vertebrate Paleontology
ABSTRACT —Plesiosaurs are an enigmatic, diverse extinct group of Mesozoic marine reptiles well known for their unique body plan with two pairs of flippers and usually an elongated neck. The long neck…
Neck mobility in the Jurassic plesiosaur Cryptoclidus eurymerus: finite element analysis as a new approach to understanding the cervical skeleton in fossil vertebrates
- Medicine, GeologyPeerJ
It is posited that the long neck served in hydrodynamic and visual camouflage, hiding the bulk of the body from the small but abundant prey, such as schooling fish and squid, which may have been advantageous in withstanding strong hydrod dynamic forces acting on the neck during predatory strikes.
A new polycotylid plesiosaur with extensive soft tissue preservation from the early Late Cretaceous of northeast Mexico
espanolSe describe el esqueleto casi completo de un nuevo plesiosaurio polycotilido. El ejemplar procede de las calizas laminares de Vallecillo del noreste de Mexico y fue asignada…
An integrated approach to understanding the role of the long neck in plesiosaurs
The evolution and function of the long neck in plesiosaurs, and how the problems associated with stiffness or flexibility were overcome during feeding, or rapid swimming during predator avoidance,…
Exceptionally prolonged tooth formation in elasmosaurid plesiosaurians
- Biology, MedicinePloS one
The first plesiosaurian tooth formation rates as a mechanism for servicing the functional dentition are reported, infering a remarkably protracted tooth formation cycle of about 2–3 years–other polyphyodont amniotes normally take ~1–2 years to form their teeth.
Foramina in plesiosaur cervical centra indicate a specialized vascular system
It is found that plesiosaurian cervicals have large, paired, and highly symmetrical foramina on the ventral side of the centrum, traditionally termed subcentral foramina, and on the floor of the neural canal, which are a rare osteological correlate of the non-cranial vascular system in fossil reptiles.