Plesiosaur locomotion

@article{Halstead1989PlesiosaurL,
  title={Plesiosaur locomotion},
  author={Lambert Beverly Halstead},
  journal={Journal of the Geological Society},
  year={1989},
  volume={146},
  pages={37 - 40}
}
  • L. B. Halstead
  • Published 1 January 1989
  • Journal of the Geological Society
Plesiosaurs are unique in being the only underwater fliers with four ‘wings’, and how the two pairs worked in relation to one another is a matter of some controversy. Newman's hypothesis of porpoising seems to provide a possible solution. Any discussion of plesiosaur locomotion must take into account the different modes of plesiosaur life: the long-necked forms were fish-eating surface paddlers and the short-necked were diving cephalopod feeders. 
Computer Simulations Imply Forelimb-Dominated Underwater Flight in Plesiosaurs
TLDR
It is concluded that plesiosaurs were forelimb-dominated swimmers that used their hind limbs mainly for maneuverability and stability, and not the most efficient biologically possible limb stroke.
The four-flipper swimming method of plesiosaurs enabled efficient and effective locomotion
TLDR
It is shown that plesiosaur hind flippers generated up to 60% more thrust and 40% higher efficiency when operating in harmony with their forward counterparts, when compared with operating alone, and the spacing and relative motion between the flippers was critical in governing these increases.
Mobility and hydrodynamic implications of the long neck in plesiosaurs
Plesiosaurs are extinct marine reptiles that lived during the Mesozoic, well-known for their unique body plan with two pairs of flippers and an elongated neck. What this long neck was used for is
FUNCTIONAL MORPHOLOGY AND HYDRODYNAMICS OF PLESIOSAUR NECKS: DOES SIZE MATTER?
ABSTRACT —Plesiosaurs are an enigmatic, diverse extinct group of Mesozoic marine reptiles well known for their unique body plan with two pairs of flippers and usually an elongated neck. The long neck
An integrated approach to understanding the role of the long neck in plesiosaurs
The evolution and function of the long neck in plesiosaurs, and how the problems associated with stiffness or flexibility were overcome during feeding, or rapid swimming during predator avoidance,
The back-to-front plesiosaur Cryptoclidus ( Apractocleidus ) aldingeri from the Kimmeridgian of Milne Land , Greenland
In 1935, von Huene identified the partial skeleton of a fossil reptile from the Kimmeridgian of Milne Land, Greenland, as part of a plesiosaur. This specimen was used as the holotype of Cryptoclidus
Two new species of long-necked plesiosaurians (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the Upper Jurassic (Middle Volgian) Agardhfjellet Formation of central Spitsbergen
TLDR
The Middle Volgian age of this material helps to bridge the temporal and morphological gap between better known Middle and Late Jurassic plesiosaurians from Europe and Late Cretaceous taxa primarily known from North America.
Evidence for survival in a Middle Jurassic plesiosaur with a humeral pathology: What can we infer of plesiosaur behaviour?
TLDR
Healing of the pathology shows that it was possible for the plesiosaur not only to survive, but somehow to compensate for the loss of its limb, and how resulting limitations affected its behaviour and giving insight into potential survival strategies.
Estimating the evolutionary rates in mosasauroids and plesiosaurs: discussion of niche occupation in Late Cretaceous seas
TLDR
Comparisons of the rates of morphological evolution of mosasauroids throughout their evolutionary history with those inferred for contemporary plesiosaur clades revealed oscillations in evolutionary rates that overlapped in time and space, which were used as a baseline for discussion and comparisons of traits that can affect the shape of the niche structures of aquatic amniotes.
Complex rostral neurovascular system in a giant pliosaur
TLDR
Using computed tomography scans, the extensive bifurcating neurovascular channels could be traced through the rostrum to both the teeth and the foramina on the dorsal and lateral surface of the snout of an exceptionally well-preserved pliosaur from the Kimmeridgian of Weymouth Bay.
...
1
2
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 15 REFERENCES
Foreflipper propulsion in the California sea lion, Zalophus californianus
TLDR
Film records revealed that stroke amplitude became greater with speed, although total stroke duration remained essentially constant, and large variations in the measured values suggest that changes in amplitude and flipper angle of attack are also important parameters for modulating swimming speed.
Tooth morphology and prey preference of Mesozoic marine reptiles
TLDR
The guilds present in six well-preserved faunas of the Jurassic and Cretaceous illustrate the structure of and changes in the large marine predator adaptive zone.
The Pattern of Vertebrate Evolution
TLDR
This ebooks is under topic such as patterns of vertebrate neurogenesis and the paths of genome duplication, extinction and vertebrate evolution evolution of developmental pattern for vertebrate fins, limbs, and tails.
The scapula of Pliosauncs macrornem Phillips
  • 1958
Additional notices on the fossil genera Icthyosaurus and Plesiosaurus
  • Transactions of the Geological Society of London ( 2 ) 1, 103-23.
  • 1824
Consideration concerning plesiosaur locomotion
  • Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie
  • 1982
Plesiosaur locomotion-undenvater flight versus rowing. Neues Jahrbuch f i r Geologie und Palaontologie Abhandlungen
  • 1982
Intracorporal force transmission in plesiosaurs
  • Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Palaontologie Abhandungen
  • 1977
The locomotion of plesiosaurs
  • Neues Jahrbuch f i r
  • 1975
...
1
2
...