Pleiotropic function of Toll-like receptors.

  title={Pleiotropic function of Toll-like receptors.},
  author={Tsuneyasu Kaisho and Shizuo Akira},
  journal={Microbes and infection},
  volume={6 15},
A group of type I transmembrane proteins, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) discriminate various microorganism-associated molecular structures that can function as immune adjuvants. Each TLR signaling has an overlapping but distinct function, which largely depends on intracellular adaptor molecules. Clarifying the functions and signaling of TLRs should provide us with critical information for manipulating the host defense mechanism.