Plasticity varies with boldness in a weakly-electric fish

  title={Plasticity varies with boldness in a weakly-electric fish},
  author={Kyriacos Kareklas and Gareth Arnott and Robert William Elwood and Richard A. Holland},
  journal={Frontiers in Zoology},
BackgroundThe expression of animal personality is indicated by patterns of consistency in individual behaviour. Often, the differences exhibited between individuals are consistent across situations. However, between some situations, this can be biased by variable levels of individual plasticity. The interaction between individual plasticity and animal personality can be illustrated by examining situation-sensitive personality traits such as boldness (i.e. risk-taking and exploration tendency… Expand
Intra-individual variation in exploration behaviour in a largely aquatic frog : effects of sex and personality traits
Behavioural plasticity is important for survival and to adapt to a dynamic environment. However, it is known that many animals exhibit fixed behavioural responses termed behavioural syndromes. ThatExpand
Personality, plasticity and predictability in sticklebacks: bold fish are less plastic and more predictable than shy fish
The results provide strong evidence that individual variation in boldness is linked with behavioural plasticity and predictability, and the evolutionary causes as well as fitness consequences of these links in behavioural variation are established. Expand
Why are some personalities less plastic?
An individual-based model is developed that simulates a population in which individuals of varying fighting ability compete by pairwise interactions using either the fixed hawk (aggressive) or dove (peaceful) strategies or a conditional assessment strategy and predicts that ecological conditions that cause assortative interactions would contribute in maintaining variation among individuals in their fighting ability, thereby favouring greater plasticity. Expand
Personality effects on spatial learning: Comparisons between visual conditions in a weakly electric fish
Recent research has explored links between cognition and personality, with prominent hypotheses proposing that personality drives consistent individual differences in cognitive function. TheseExpand
The impact of personality, morphotype and shore height on temperature-mediated behavioural responses in the beadlet anemone Actinia equina.
The data suggest that some individuals within a single population of A. equina, particularly those associated with the lower shore, may exhibit less effective behavioural responses to temperature shifts than others. Expand
Relationships between personality and lateralization of sensory inputs
In humans and other vertebrates, sensory information is sometimes lateralized towards one brain hemisphere that dominates the control of a task. Although sensory lateralization may depend on theExpand
Relationships between personality and lateralisation of sensory inputs
25 26 In humans and other vertebrates, sensory information is sometimes lateralised towards 27 one brain hemisphere that dominates the control of a task. Although sensory lateralisation may 28 dependExpand
Risk-Taking During Feeding: Between- and Within-Population Variation and Repeatability Across Contexts Among Wild Zebrafish.
Investigating variations in boldness among four populations of zebrafish collected from widely varying habitat conditions across India found significantly repeatable responses across contexts within all populations, indicating behavioral consistency. Expand
State dependence explains individual variation in nest defence behaviour in a long‐lived bird
This study shows that nest defence behaviour differs consistently among individuals and is adjusted to individual state in a direction predicted by adaptive personality theory. Expand
Learning from the mistakes of others: How female elk (Cervus elaphus) adjust behaviour with age to avoid hunters
Evidence of additive learning processes being responsible for shaping the behaviour of individuals in this population of female elk is provided, indicating that experience contributes to their survival and highlighting the behavioural plasticity of this species. Expand


Small within-day increases in temperature affects boldness and alters personality in coral reef fish
It is shown for the first time that normal within-daytime fluctuations in temperature of less than 3°C have large effects on personality for two species of juvenile coral reef fish in both observational and manipulative experiments and the results suggest that individual differences in energy metabolism may contribute to animal personality. Expand
Shyness and boldness in pumpkinseed sunfish: individual differences are context-specific
The results suggest that shyness and boldness are context-specific and may not exist as a one-dimensional behavioural continuum even within a single context. Expand
Behavioural reaction norms: animal personality meets individual plasticity.
Here, it is outlined how central ideas in behavioural ecology and quantitative genetics can be combined within a single framework based on the concept of 'behavioural reaction norms', facilitating analysis of phenomena usually studied separately in terms of personality and plasticity, thereby enhancing understanding of their adaptive nature. Expand
Effects of shell size on behavioural consistency and flexibility in hermit crabs
Comparison of statistical effect size estimates for tests of concordance and difference between situations reveals a strong pattern of consistent between-individual differences in behaviour in comparison to a statistically significant but reactively weak pattern of behavioural... Expand
Disentangling the roles of frequency-vs. state-dependence in generating individual differences in behavioural plasticity.
The results provide support for the hypothesis that negative-frequency dependence favours individual variation in plasticity, but positive frequency-dependent payoffs alone cannot explain why plasticity would be consistent within individuals, and future studies should address the factors that might favour individual consistency. Expand
Individual variation in behavioural plasticity: direct and indirect effects of boldness, exploration and sociability on habituation to predators in lizards
It is concluded that risk assessment can affect behavioural plasticity through complex interactions between direct and indirect effects, including exploratory behaviour, degree of exposure to the predator and sex, which represent novel mechanisms generating inter-individual variation in plasticity. Expand
Variation in behavioural plasticity regulates consistent individual differences in Enallagma damselfly larvae
Testing for relationships between heterogeneous predation regimes, the mean and variance of behavioural plasticity and consistent individual differences among three species groups of larval damselflies found Enallagma ebrium/hageni expressed the most consistent plastic response to predator cues, less variability in Plasticity and greater consistent individual Differences across cues compared to more variable plastic responses and low consistentindividual differences in E. signatum. Expand
A Comparison of Measures of Boldness and Their Relationships to Survival in Young Fish
Multiple measures of behavior within the context of novel environment or object tests were the most robust way to assess boldness and these measures have a complex relationship with survivorship of young fish in the field. Expand
Adaptive strategies for managing uncertainty may explain personality-related differences in behavioural plasticity
There is growing evidence that individuals within populations show consistent differences in their behaviour across contexts (personality), and that personality is associated with the extent to whichExpand
Quantifying the predictability of behaviour: statistical approaches for the study of between-individual variation in the within-individual variance
The different methods described here and the standardized effect size CVP should open new avenues for studying individuality in animal behaviour. Expand