Plasmons, Gauge Invariance, and Mass

  title={Plasmons, Gauge Invariance, and Mass},
  author={P. Anderson},
  journal={Physical Review},
Schwinger has pointed out that the Yang-Mills vector boson implied by associating a generalized gauge transformation with a conservation law (of baryonic charge, for instance) does not necessarily have zero mass, if a certain criterion on the vacuum fluctuations of the generalized current is satisfied. It is shown here that the theory of plasma oscillations is a simple nonrelativistic example exhibiting all of the features of Schwinger's idea. It is also shown that Schwinger's criterion that… Expand
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