Plasmid profiles as indicators of the source of contamination of Staphylococcus aureus endemic within poultry processing plants

  title={Plasmid profiles as indicators of the source of contamination of Staphylococcus aureus endemic within poultry processing plants},
  author={Christine E R Dodd and B J Chaffey and William Waites},
  journal={Applied and Environmental Microbiology},
  pages={1541 - 1549}
A total of 530 strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from the defeathering machinery of a chicken processing plant and from neck skin samples of carcasses at different stages of processing in two visits 4 weeks apart. Eleven different plasmid profiles were detected in the isolates, eight being common to both visits. The plasmid profiles of the strains forming the majority of the population on the freshly slaughtered birds were rarely present in the strains isolated from the pluckers… 

Adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus: Its importance in poultry processing

The main contamination occurs on the rubber fingers of the defeathering machinery, where the endemic strains, which grow in clumps and are eight times more resistant to hypochlorite than non‐endemic strains, resist cleaning and disinfection by producing a glucosamine‐rich extracellular polymer, which has been characterised by electron microscopy and chemical tests.

Differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus from freshly slaughtered poultry and strains 'endemic' to processing plants by biochemical and physiological tests.

A comparison was made of 27 'endemic' strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 35 strains from freshly slaughtered birds, isolated at five commercial slaughterhouses processing chickens or turkeys, which revealed several distinct groupings which were influenced by strain type, processing plant and bird origin.

Detection of the site of contamination by Staphylococcus aureus within the defeathering machinery of a poultry processing plant

Data obtained from four visits to the processing plant over a period of 10 months suggested that the incidence of S. aureus on the birds is affected by the season (summer or winter) whereas levels in the plucking machines depended on the day of sampling.

Analysis of plasmid profiling as a method for rapid differentiation of food-associated Clostridium perfringens strains.

The possibility that epidemiologically-unrelated strains of Clostridium perfringens might possess similar profiles appears to be very low in this organism.

Characterization of drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from poultry processing plants in Western Australia

There were no consistent resistance patterns for the isolates and no consistent patterns were found between and within the two processing plants, and one hundred and twenty-six S. aureus were isolated from two poultry processing plants in Western Australia.

Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Fingerprinting of Pseudomonas Strains from a Poultry Processing Plant

The AFLP data showed that strains were being disseminated from the beginning to the end of the poultry processing operation, since many strains associated with carcasses at the packaging stage were members of the same clusters as strains obtained from carcasses after the defeathering stage.

Study on acquisition of bacterial antibiotic resistance determinants in poultry litter.

Antibiotic resistance and the mode of transmission were investigated in bacteria isolated from poultry litter. Total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were screened and identified for their resistance

Molecular and Metabolic Typing of Resident and Transient Fluorescent Pseudomonad Flora from a Meat Mincer.

Results suggest the existence on mincer spot 2 of an endemic flora of fluorescent pseudomonads, probably in the form of a biofilm, which indicates that only a fraction of the raw meat population of P. fiuorescens is successful in forming biofilm in this environment.

Biocide use in the food industry and the disinfectant resistance of persistent strains of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli

The concept of a persistent microflora in food factories will have an impact on the future selection of suitable control options, including the use of biocides.



Plasmids of Staphylococcus aureus associated with live and processed poultry.

A series of 23 strains of Staphylococcus aureus originally isolated from processed poultry was screened for the presence of plasmids, consistent with the notion that the genetic determinants associated with the cultural characteristics of endemic strains are chromosomally located.

Incidence and properties of Staphylococcus aureus associated with turkeys during processing and further-processing operations

Despite the limited susceptibility of isolates from the different factories to typing by means of either standard human or poultry bacteriophages, evidence was obtained with the aid of biotyping for the presence of both human and animal-derived strains.

Characterisation of staphylococci isolated from poultry.

The characteristics of staphylococci isolated from arthritis-synovitis lesions in broiler breeding stock, and strains isolated from poultry without known history of stAPHylococcal disease, were investigated and it was suggested that strains derived from poultry may be different from strains isolate from other animals or humans.

Biochemical characteristics and enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from poultry.

Starch gel zymograms of intracellular esterases showed a general correlation with the biotyping and phage typing results, and overall 62% of strains were enterotoxigenic, the majority producing enterotoxin A.

Chlorine resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from turkeys and turkey products

When tested in phosphate buffer at pH 7·0, strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from turkeys immediately after commercial slaughter were reduced in viability by at least 10000‐fold following

Chlorine resistance of strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from poultry processing plants

Strains of Staphylococcus aureus which colonize defeathering machinery and become endemic within poultry processing plants appear to be resistant to the normal cleaning and disinfection processes.

A rapid alkaline extraction procedure for screening recombinant plasmid DNA.

The method is simple enough to permit the analysis by gel electrophoresis of 100 or more clones per day yet yields plasmid DNA which is pure enough to be digestible by restriction enzymes, and achievesequate pH control without using a pH meter.

Use of plasmid profiles to detect changes in strains of Staphylococcus aureus during poultry processing.

The plasmid profiles of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated at different stages in three poultry processing plants have been examined and appeared to correspond with particular biotypes and certain phage types.

Pathogenic staphylococci in poultry