Plasma polyphenols and antioxidants, oxidative DNA damage and endothelial function in a diet and wine intervention study in humans.

Abstract

An intervention study was performed to evaluate the influence of a Mediterranean diet, a high fat diet, and their supplementation with red wine in moderate amounts, on biochemical, physiological, and clinical parameters related to atherosclerosis and other chronic diseases. For 3 months two groups of 21 male volunteers each, received either a Mediterranean diet or a high fat diet; during the second month, red wine was added isocalorically, 240 ml/day. Participants were kept under close medical and nutritional surveillance. At days 0, 30, 60 and 90, clinical, physiological and biochemical evaluations were made. Plasma vitamin C was significantly decreased in the high fat diet group compared to the Mediterranean diet group. After wine supplementation to the Mediterranean diet, a significant 13.5% increase in plasma vitamin C was observed. Furthermore, when wine was added vitamin E decreased significantly in plasma, 15% in the high fat diet and 26% in the Mediterranean diet. Total plasma antioxidant capacity (total antioxidant reactivity) increased 28% above basal levels in the Mediterranean diet group, but not in the high fat diet group. In both groups, wine induced a marked increase in total antioxidant reactivity above basal levels, 56% and 23%, respectively. Oxidative DNA damage, detected as 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in blood leukocyte DNA, was markedly increased by the high fat diet; however, it was strongly reduced, to approximately 50% basal values, after wine supplementation, both in the high fat diet and Mediterranean diet groups. Endothelial function, evaluated noninvasively as flow-mediated vascular reactivity of the brachial artery, was suppressed by the high fat diet, and was normal after wine supplementation. These effects are attributed to oxidative stress associated with a high fat diet, and to the elevated plasma antioxidant capacity associated with wine consumption and the Mediterranean diet. The results presented support the following conclusions: a high fat diet induces oxidative stress; a diet rich in fruits and vegetables enhances antioxidant defenses; wine supplementation to a high fat or a Mediterranean diet increases plasma antioxidant capacity, decreases oxidative DNA damage, and normalizes endothelial function.

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@article{Leighton1999PlasmaPA, title={Plasma polyphenols and antioxidants, oxidative DNA damage and endothelial function in a diet and wine intervention study in humans.}, author={Federico M Leighton and Ada M. Cuevas and Viviana Guasch and D D P{\'e}rez and Pablo Strobel and Alvaro San Martin and Ulises Urz{\'u}a and Mar{\'i}a Soledad Diez and Rocio E. Foncea and Octavio A. Castillo and Claudio Miz{\'o}n and Manuel Antonio Espinoza and Ines Urquiaga and Jaime Rozowski and Alberto Ma{\'i}z and Alfredo M. Germain}, journal={Drugs under experimental and clinical research}, year={1999}, volume={25 2-3}, pages={133-41} }