Potential novel biomarkers of cardiovascular dysfunction and disease: cardiotrophin-1, adipokines and galectin-3
BACKGROUND Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) is a member of the interleukin (IL-6) family of cytokines and is increased in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). AIMS To evaluate the prognostic role of CT-1 in patients with CHF. METHODS AND RESULTS We measured the plasma levels of CT-1, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and IL-6 in 125 patients with CHF. Patients were monitored for a mean follow-up period of 2.9 years. Plasma levels of CT-1 increased with severity of CHF. There was a significant negative correlation between plasma CT-1 and left ventricular ejection fraction. There was a significant correlation between plasma CT-1 and log IL-6. During the follow-up period, 37 patients died. High plasma levels of CT-1, BNP, and IL-6 were independent predictors of mortality on stepwise multivariate analysis. The hazard ratio for mortality in patients with plasma BNP>170 pg/mL and CT-1>658 fmol/mL was 2.48 (95% confidence interval, 1.217-5.060) compared to those with plasma BNP>170 pg/mL and CT-1<658 fmol/mL (p=0.0124). CONCLUSION These findings indicate that plasma CT-1 measurement provides additional prognostic information and that combined levels of CT-1 and BNP are more accurate at predicting mortality in patients with CHF than either marker alone.