Plasma bradykinin levels in human chronic congestive heart failure.

Abstract

Induction of congestive heart failure by high-frequency pacing has been reported to increase plasma levels of immunoreactive kinins in dogs. In the present study, we evaluated plasma bradykinin levels in human heart failure. Utilizing a recently developed method, we specifically measured plasma levels of bradykinin-(1-9) nonapeptide in 21 patients with… (More)

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