Plasma antioxidants from chocolate

@article{Serafini2003PlasmaAF,
  title={Plasma antioxidants from chocolate},
  author={Mauro Serafini and Rossana Bugianesi and Giuseppe Maiani and Silvia Valtue{\~n}a and Simone De Santis and Alan Crozier},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2003},
  volume={424},
  pages={1013-1013}
}
There is some speculation that dietary flavonoids from chocolate, in particular (−)epicatechin, may promote cardiovascular health as a result of direct antioxidant effects or through antithrombotic mechanisms. Here we show that consumption of plain, dark chocolate (Fig. 1) results in an increase in both the total antioxidant capacity and the (−)epicatechin content of blood plasma, but that these effects are markedly reduced when the chocolate is consumed with milk or if milk is incorporated as… 
Nutrition: Milk and absorption of dietary flavanols
TLDR
It is suggested that interaction between milk proteins and chocolate flavonoids inhibits the in vivo antioxidant activity of chocolate and the absorption of epicatechin into the bloodstream, which has implications beyond chocolate consumption if dairy products do indeed counteract the putative health benefits of dietary flavanols.
Nutrition: Milk and absorption of dietary flavanols
Our results indicate that there is an increase in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and (–)epicatechin content of plasma in people who have consumed dark chocolate, and that these effects are reduced
Health benefits of eating chocolate
TLDR
The authors' finding that eating chocolate causes an increase in total plasma antioxidant capacity, and the mechanism by which this is achieved, must be considered — however, it should not be assumed that the effect is necessarily beneficial.
Chocolate, Lifestyle, and Health
TLDR
This paper summarizes the new findings and developments regarding the effects of cocoa and chocolate consumption on human health as presented at the International Conference “Chocolate, Lifestyle, and Health” (Milan, Italy, March 2, 2007).
Dietary Flavanols and Platelet Reactivity
TLDR
This paper will review a series of in vivo studies on the effects of flavanol-rich cocoa and chocolate on platelet activation and platelet-dependent hemostasis, and briefly review the body of literature with regard to other flavan-3-ols foods and beverages.
The emerging role of flavonoid-rich cocoa and chocolate in cardiovascular health and disease.
TLDR
Increasing evidence from experimental and clinical studies using cocoa-derived products and chocolate suggest an important role for these high-flavanol-containing foods in heart and vascular protection.
Chocolate at heart: the anti-inflammatory impact of cocoa flavanols.
TLDR
R rigorous controlled human studies with adequate follow-up and with the use of critical dietary questionnaires are needed to determine the effects of flavanols on the major endpoints of cardiovascular health.
Cocoa antioxidants and cardiovascular health.
TLDR
The bioactivity of flavanols in the context of cardiovascular health is discussed, with respect to their bioavailability, their antioxidant properties, and their vascular effects.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-7 OF 7 REFERENCES
Cocoa and chocolate flavonoids: implications for cardiovascular health.
TLDR
This paper offers a review of current scientific research regarding the potential cardiovascular health benefits of flavonoids found in cocoa and chocolate, and recommends by health professionals to encourage individuals to consume a wide range of phytochemical-rich foods, which can include dark chocolate in moderate amounts.
Epicatechin in human plasma: in vivo determination and effect of chocolate consumption on plasma oxidation status.
TLDR
The data support the concept that the consumption of chocolate can result in significant increases in plasma epicatechin concentrations and decreases in plasma baseline oxidation products.
In vivo antioxidant effect of green and black tea in man.
TLDR
The paper shows that tea possesses a strong antioxidant activity in vitro which is believed to be exerted by its polyphenols moiety, and provides compelling evidence that tea has also a potent in vivo activity in man.
The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of "antioxidant power": the FRAP assay.
TLDR
The FRAP assay offers a putative index of antioxidant, or reducing, potential of biological fluids within the technological reach of every laboratory and researcher interested in oxidative stress and its effects.
Polyphenol/peptide binding and precipitation.
TLDR
Biophysical studies of the interactions between chemically defined polyphenols and peptides are presented and it is shown that intermolecular binding is dominated by stacking of polyphenolic rings onto planar hydrophobic surfaces and is strengthened by multiple cooperative binding of poly phenolic rings.