BACKGROUND We investigated the prognostic significance of plasma N-terminal fragment of the prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide (Nt-proBNP) concentrations in addition to time to reperfusion and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow before and after coronary intervention in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) from the database of the Assessment of the Safety and Efficacy of a New Treatment Strategy with Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (ASSENT IV-PCI) trial. METHODS Plasma Nt-proBNP was available in 1,037 patients with STEMI. Patients were randomized either to primary (p-PCI) or to full-dose tenecteplase before PCI (f-PCI).The study end point was the composite of death, cardiogenic shock, or congestive heart failure at 90 days. RESULTS According to classification tree analysis, patients with Nt-proBNP levels >694 pg/mL had the highest primary end point rates (33.8% vs 11%, P < .001). In Cox regression analysis, Nt-proBNP >694 pg/mL strongly predicted 90-day survival even among patients with short treatment delay (f-PCI < or =3 hours: hazard ratio [HR] 2.63, P = .002 and p-PCI < or =3 hours: HR 4.87, P < .001, respectively). Patients with TIMI 3 flow after coronary intervention were at significantly higher risk of the primary end point if admission Nt-proBNP exceeded 694 pg/mL (f-PCI: HR 2.88, P < .001 and p-PCI: HR 3.84, P < .001, respectively). In multivariable analysis, Nt-proBNP >694 pg/mL significantly (P = .001) predicted 90-day survival in addition to age (P < .001), TIMI flow after PCI (P < .001), body mass index (P = .026), anterior wall infarction (P = .035), and systolic blood pressure at randomization (P = .036), respectively. CONCLUSION Elevated plasma concentrations of Nt-proBNP in the early phase of STEMI determine in-hospital and 90-day outcome after infarction irrespective of time to treatment and pre- or postinterventional TIMI flow.