Plantations in the Economy of the Sokoto Caliphate

  title={Plantations in the Economy of the Sokoto Caliphate},
  author={Paul E. Lovejoy},
  journal={The Journal of African History},
  pages={341 - 368}
  • P. Lovejoy
  • Published 1 July 1978
  • History, Economics
  • The Journal of African History
At a time when coastal West Africa was responding to the growth of ‘legitimate’ trade, the Sokoto Caliphate was experiencing dramatic expansion in the plantation sector. Plantations (gandu, rinji, tungazi), which used slaves captured by the Caliphate armies, were established near all the major towns and were particularly important around Sokoto, Kano, Zaria and other capitals. Plantation development originated with the policies of Muhammad Bello, first Caliph and successor to Uthman dan Fodio… 


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