Plantar Warts: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Clinical Management

  title={Plantar Warts: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Clinical Management},
  author={Dexter Jordan Witchey and Nichole Brianne Witchey and Michele Marie Roth-Kauffman and Mark Kauffman},
  journal={Journal of Osteopathic Medicine Journal of Osteopathic Medicine},
  pages={92 - 105}
Abstract Verrucae plantaris (plantar warts) are common cutaneous lesions of the plantar aspect of the foot that are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Ubiquitous in our environment, asymptomatic infection with HPV occurs frequently, with most infections controlled or cleared by cellular and humoral immune responses. However, certain populations have been observed to manifest plantar warts at higher rates compared with the general population, placing them at increased risk for wart… 

Figures and Tables from this paper


The mechanism of action of HPV vaccines in the treatment of warts is not yet established, but might be mediated by the development of IgG neutralizing antibodies directed against the major and minor capsid proteins, L1 and L2 of human papillomavirus generated as a result of vaccination.

Treatment Intervention of Chronic Plantar Wart Using Gardasil 9 Vaccine - A Case Report

It is proposed that Gardasil 9 be administered to migrants, and that it may also be considered for use as a therapeutic agent in chronic plantar warts, to reduce the morbidity period, prevent autoinoculation, viral shedding and community spread.

Topical arbidol for the treatment of verruca plantar: A case report

Preliminary results suggest that arbidol, a broad-spectrum antiviral medicine targeting for numerous DNA and RNA viruses, is effective for verruca plantar, but the efficacy needs to be verified by more cases.

Destructive therapies for cutaneous warts: A review of the evidence.

This review summarises high-quality studies investigating the efficacy of chemical and physical destructive wart therapies and concludes that hygienic practices need to be adopted in conjunction with any treatment.

Smoking: Is it a Risk Factor for Common Warts?

This study has revealed that smoking is not a risk factor for common warts, and the lack of statistical differences are likely due to small sample size of the study, however, further studies with larger sample sizes are needed.

Diagnostic techniques in HPV infections and the need to implement them in plantar lesions: A systematic review

A variety of diagnostic methods are showed, including molecular techniques, which exhibit more sensitivity than other methods but are less frequently applied to plantar lesions, where visual inspection is the most frequent method but can lead to errors.

Viral Cutaneous Infections in Swimmers: A Preliminary Study

There was no difference between sexes for MC but diagnoses of warts were higher in females and the incidence of MC and warts in swimmers who use outdoor facilities was higher.

New Insights in The Treatment of Recalcitrant Plantar Warts

Interleukin-2 stimulates the maturation of the natural killer T cell and promotes its cytotoxicity and intralesional injections are thought to work by inducing a systemic T-cell mediated response inducing principal increase in the release of cytokines from Th1 cells such as IL-2 and IFN-γ.

A Retrospective Study of Clinical Efficacy of Cantharidin Cream for Verruca Plantaris

The results from this study demonstrated that external cantharidin cream therapy could be served as an alternative treatment for Verruca plantaris and the resolution rate of warts in Cantharidsin group was the highest among the three groups.



Therapeutic Approaches in the Management of Plantar Warts by Human Papillomaviruses: A review

The causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention methods for plantar warts are described.

An armamentarium of wart treatments.

  • M. Lipke
  • Medicine
    Clinical medicine & research
  • 2006
The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the wart treatment literature to expand awareness of the options available to practitioners faced with patients presenting with problematic warts.

Management of cutaneous viral warts

High quality evidence based studies are lacking in this discipline owing to confounding factors such as high rates of spontaneous resolution and a subpopulation of warts that seem recalcitrant to most treatments.

Anatomical Detection of Inflammatory Changes Associated with Plantar Warts by Ultrasound

Ultrasound can provide detailed anatomical data on warts and their inflammatory changes in the surrounding tissues and may help to manage difficult cases.

Warts Transmitted in Families and Schools: A Prospective Cohort

The degree of HPV exposure in the family and school class contributes to the development of warts in schoolchildren, and preventive recommendations should focus more on limiting HPV transmission in families and school classes, rather than in public places.

Verruca : Need to Know about Human Papilloma Virus ( HPV ) Infection

Verruca or warts are common significant cause of cosmetic concern and frustration of the patient, and may become more resistant to treatment over time.

Guidelines for the Management of Cutaneous Warts

These guidelines reviewed research on the management of warts published between January 1999 and March 2014 in the English-language literature to arrive at these guidelines.

Cutaneous warts: an evidence-based approach to therapy.

Evidence supports the at-home use of topical salicylic acid and physician-administered cryotherapy for cutaneous warts and intralesional immunotherapy for nongenital warts may be an option for large or recalcitrant warts.

Intralesional immunotherapy with killed Mycobacterium indicus pranii vaccine for the treatment of extensive cutaneous warts.

Killed Mw vaccine is safe and effective in the treatment of extensive cutaneous warts and larger, preferably randomized controlled trials are needed to assess its efficacy vis a vis standard therapies for warts.