Plant responses to drought, salinity and extreme temperatures: towards genetic engineering for stress tolerance

  title={Plant responses to drought, salinity and extreme temperatures: towards genetic engineering for stress tolerance},
  author={Wangxia Wang and Basia Judith Vinocur and Arie Altman},
Abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity, extreme temperatures, chemical toxicity and oxidative stress are serious threats to agriculture and the natural status of the environment. Increased salinization of arable land is expected to have devastating global effects, resulting in 30% land loss within the next 25 years, and up to 50% by the year 2050. Therefore, breeding for drought and salinity stress tolerance in crop plants (for food supply) and in forest trees (a central component of the… 

Molecular and Genetic Analysis of Abiotic Stress Resistance of Forage Crops

The investigation of stress-tolerance genes will increase the knowledge of tolerance mechanisms, which could in turn be used to promote improvements in forage crop plants tolerance.

Genetic Engineering Strategies for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants

Posttranscriptional and posttranslational regulation mechanisms of the abiotic stress response, like microRNAs and ubiquitination, appear as promising new modulation targets to develop abiotic Stress-tolerant plants and contribute to the development of more productive crops to feed the growing mass.

Physiological, biochemical and metabolic responses of abiotic plant stress: salinity and drought

: The most important types of abiotic stress that affect agricultural crops throughout the world are drought and salinity. These stresses will continue to worsen as the current climate crisis

Abiotic Stress Responses in Plants: Present and Future

There is a whole cascade of genes involved in abiotic stress tolerance; starting from stress perception to transcriptional activation of downstream genes leading to stress adaptation and tolerance, and significant number of genes with unknown functions found to be regulated by abiotic stresses.

Water Stress in Plants: Causes, Effects and Responses

This chapter aims at the stresses related to water and the expression 'drought' which is derived from the agricultural context, is used as equal to water stress throughout the article.

Abiotic Stress Signaling in Plants–An Overview

This chapter appraises recent literature on stress signaling and stress responses in plants and reveals that understanding signal perception and its transduction is crucial for engineering stress tolerance in crop plants.

Abiotic Stress in Crops: Candidate Genes, Osmolytes, Polyamines, and Biotechnological Intervention

The scientific community is well placed since a number of critical genes, particularly transcription factors that regulate gene expression in response to environmental stresses, have been identified and the proof-of-the-concept validated.

Transcription Factors in Abiotic Stress Responses: Their Potentials in Crop Improvement

The final aims are to identify and characterize the function of important genes involved in plant responses to stress that can be used for genetic manipulation and their use in crop improvement.

Molecular and Physiological Mechanisms to Mitigate Abiotic Stress Conditions in Plants

Various important factors, such as the biochemical, physiological, and molecular mechanisms of plants, including the use of microbiomes and nanotechnology to combat abiotic stresses, are highlighted in this article.



Gene Expression and Signal Transduction in Water-Stress Response

Findings suggest the existence of both ABAindependent and ABA-dependent signal transduction cascades between the initial signal of drought or cold stress and the expression of specific genes, which are consistent with evidence that these genes respond to water stress or dehydration.

Plant resistance to environmental stress

  • Smirnoff
  • Biology, Medicine
    Current opinion in biotechnology
  • 1998

Overexpression of β-carotene hydroxylase enhances stress tolerance in Arabidopsis

It is shown that in Arabidopsis thaliana overexpression of the chyB gene that encodes β-carotene hydroxylase—an enzyme in the zeaxanthin biosynthetic pathway—causes a specific twofold increase in the size of the xanthophyll cycle pool, which makes the plants more tolerant to conditions of high light and high temperature.

A genomics approach towards salt stress tolerance

Trehalose accumulation in rice plants confers high tolerance levels to different abiotic stresses

  • A. GargJukon Kim R. Wu
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2002
The regulated overexpression of Escherichia coli trehalose biosynthetic genes (otsA and otsB) as a fusion gene for manipulating abiotic stress tolerance in rice demonstrates the feasibility of engineering rice for increased tolerance of abiotics stress and enhanced productivity through tissue-specific or stress-dependent overproduction of trehalOSE.

Plant salt tolerance.

  • J. Zhu
  • Biology, Medicine
    Trends in plant science
  • 2001

Improving plant drought, salt, and freezing tolerance by gene transfer of a single stress-inducible transcription factor.

It is shown here that overexpression of the cDNA encoding DREB1A in transgenic plants activated the expression of many of these stress tolerance genes under normal growing conditions and resulted in improved tolerance to drought, salt loading, and freezing.

Genomic approaches to plant stress tolerance.


Evidence for plant stress signaling systems is summarized, some of which have components analogous to those that regulate osmotic stress responses of yeast, some that presumably function in intercellular coordination or regulation of effector genes in a cell-/tissue-specific context required for tolerance of plants.

Transcriptome Changes for Arabidopsis in Response to Salt, Osmotic, and Cold Stress1,212

Together results from all three stresses identified 2,409 genes with a greater than 2-fold change over control, suggesting that about 30% of the transcriptome is sensitive to regulation by common stress conditions, and supporting the hypothesis that an important function of the circadian clock is to “anticipate” predictable stresses such as cold nights.