Plant morphology and recruitment of the third trophic level : subtle and little-recognized defenses ?

@inproceedings{Marquis1996PlantMA,
  title={Plant morphology and recruitment of the third trophic level : subtle and little-recognized defenses ?},
  author={Robert J. Marquis and Christopher J Whelan},
  year={1996}
}
We present the new hypothesis that plant morphological traits that make plants more accessible to predators and parasitoids (in contrast to attracting them) may be shaped by the third trophic level. We review data that demonstrate selective impacts of the third trophic level, other than ants and mites, on plant fitness. This third trophic level impact comes about because predators and parasites reduce damage caused by herbivores of those plants. Because of this impact, we suggest that there may… CONTINUE READING

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