Plant cholesterol biosynthetic pathway overlaps with phytosterol metabolism

@article{Sonawane2016PlantCB,
  title={Plant cholesterol biosynthetic pathway overlaps with phytosterol metabolism},
  author={Prashant D Sonawane and Jacob Pollier and Sayantan Panda and Jędrzej Szymański and Hassan Massalha and Meital Yona and Tamar Unger and Sergey Malitsky and Philipp Arendt and Laurens Pauwels and Efrat Almekias-Siegl and Ilana Rogachev and Sagit Meir and Pablo D C{\'a}rdenas and Athar Masri and Marina Petrikov and Hubert Schaller and Arthur A. Schaffer and Avinash C Kamble and A. Giri and Alain Goossens and Asaph Aharoni},
  journal={Nature Plants},
  year={2016},
  volume={3}
}
The amount of cholesterol made by many plants is not negligible. [] Key Result Integrating tomato transcript and protein co-expression data revealed candidate genes putatively associated with cholesterol biosynthesis. A combination of functional assays including gene silencing, examination of recombinant enzyme activity and yeast mutant complementation suggests the cholesterol pathway comprises 12 enzymes acting in 10 steps.

Dissecting cholesterol and phytosterol biosynthesis via mutants and inhibitors.

TLDR
The complexity and variation of the biosynthetic routes of the most abundant phytosterols and cholesterol in the green lineage are reviewed and how different enzymes in these pathways are conserved and diverged from humans, yeast and even bacteria are reviewed.

Engineering of Phytosterol-Producing Yeast Platforms for Functional Reconstitution of Downstream Biosynthetic Pathways

TLDR
This work resolves the technical bottlenecks in phytosterol-derived pathway reconstitution in the backer’s yeast and opens up opportunities for efficient bioproduction and pathway elucidation of this group of phytochemicals.

Engineering of Phytosterol-Producing Yeast Platforms for Functional Reconstitution of Downstream Biosynthetic Pathways.

TLDR
This work identified and addressed some of the technical bottlenecks in phytosterol-derived pathway reconstitution in the baker's yeast and opens up opportunities for efficient bioproduction and metabolic pathway elucidation of this group of phytochemicals.

Short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase governs steroidal specialized metabolites structural diversity and toxicity in the genus Solanum

TLDR
It is found that the tomato GLYCOALKALOID METABOLISM25 (GAME25), a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase, catalyzes the first of three prospective reactions required to reduce the C-5,6 double bond in dehydrotomatidine to form tomatidine.

The use of mutants and inhibitors to study sterol biosynthesis in plants

TLDR
The complexity and variation of the biosynthetic routes of the most abundant phytosterols in the green lineage are reviewed and how different enzymes in these pathways are conserved and diverged from humans,yeast and even bacteria are discussed.

THE BIOSYNTHESIS REGULATION OF POTATO STEROIDAL GLYCOALKALOIDS

TLDR
The purpose of this review is to summarize the information on the known SGA biosynthesis genes in plants and the results of the investigation of these genes in potato, as well as to consider the mechanisms of the SGA protective toxic action against pathogens and pests.

Multi‐omics data‐driven investigations of metabolic diversity of plant triterpenoids

TLDR
Gene mining through large-scale omics data and functional characterization of metabolic genes including enzymes, transcription factors and transporters could provide important insights into the evolution of specialized plant metabolism and pave the way for the production of high-value metabolites or derivatives using synthetic biology approaches.

Diatoms synthesize sterols by inclusion of animal and fungal genes in the plant pathway

TLDR
The first elucidation of the complete biosynthesis of sterols in the lineage is reported, with a good level of similarity between the sterol biosynthetic genes of S. marinoi and C. cryptica with those in the genomes of the other diatoms sequenced so far.

Unraveling the roles of plant specialized metabolites: using synthetic biology to design molecular biosensors.

TLDR
This review proposes the employment of strategies from the field of Synthetic Biology to construct and optimize genetically-encoded biosensors that can detect individual specialized metabolites in a standardized and high throughput manner to help determine the precise localization of specialized metabolites at the tissue and single-cell levels.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 70 REFERENCES

Plant sterols: biosynthesis, biological function and their importance to human nutrition.

TLDR
Since the morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease have been dramatically reduced using cholesterol-lowering drugs (statins), the interest in plant sterols lies in their potential to act as a natural preventive dietary product.

The role of sterols in plant growth and development.

GAME9 regulates the biosynthesis of steroidal alkaloids and upstream isoprenoids in the plant mevalonate pathway

TLDR
It is shown that GLYCOALKALOID METABOLISM 9 (GAME9), an APETALA2/Ethylene Response Factor related to regulators of alkaloid production in tobacco and Catharanthus roseus, controls SGA biosynthesis.

Plant sterol biosynthesis: identification of two distinct families of sterol 4alpha-methyl oxidases.

TLDR
Clear and distinct biochemical phenotypes demonstrate that, in contrast with animals and fungi, in photosynthetic eukaryotes, these two novel families of cDNAs are coding two distinct types of C-4-methylsterol oxidases controlling the level of 4,4-dimethylsterol and 4alpha- methylsterol precursors respectively.

Dual biosynthetic pathways to phytosterol via cycloartenol and lanosterol in Arabidopsis

The differences between the biosynthesis of sterols in higher plants and yeast/mammals are believed to originate at the cyclization step of oxidosqualene, which is cyclized to cycloartenol in higher

Plant sterol biosynthesis: identification of two distinct families of sterol 4 α -methyl oxidases

TLDR
Clear and distinct biochemical phenotypes demonstrate that, in contrast with animals and fungi, in photosynthetic eukaryotes, these two novel families of cDNAs are coding two distinct types of C-4-methylsterol oxidases controlling the level of 4,4-dimethylsterol and 4 α - methylsterol precursors respectively.

STEROL METHYLTRANSFERASE 1 Controls the Level of Cholesterol in Plants

TLDR
The fact that smt1 null mutants still produce alkylated sterols and that SMT1 can catalyze both alkylation steps shows that there is considerable overlap in the substrate specificity of enzymes in sterol biosynthesis.

GLYCOALKALOID METABOLISM1 Is Required for Steroidal Alkaloid Glycosylation and Prevention of Phytotoxicity in Tomato[W]

TLDR
The role of GLYCOALKALOID METABOLISM1 (GAME1) in the biosynthesis of tomato SAs was revealed, highlighting the importance of GAME1 in SA glycosylation and in reducing the toxicity of SA metabolites to the plant cell.

Reduction of Cholesterol and Glycoalkaloid Levels in Transgenic Potato Plants by Overexpression of a Type 1 Sterol Methyltransferase cDNA1

TLDR
The results show that glycoalkaloid biosynthesis can be down-regulated in transgenic potato plants by reducing the content of free nonalkylated sterols, and they support the view of cholesterol as a precursor in glycoalksaloids biosynthesis.
...