Plant biology: Coping with human CO2 emissions

  title={Plant biology: Coping with human CO2 emissions},
  author={Laura Serna and Carmen Fenoll},
For two centuries, a natural experiment has been showing how increasing atmospheric CO2 affects plants. Laboratory work provides pointers as to how they will respond in the future. 
From milliseconds to millions of years: guard cells and environmental responses.
This work has shown how guard cell Ca(2+) oscillations encode environmental signals and provides new information on how guard cells respond to abscisic acid and blue light. Expand
Reduced stomatal density in bread wheat leads to increased water-use efficiency
It is shown that engineering lower stomatal density in wheat leaves can improve water-use efficiency, yet maintain yield. Expand
Plant breeding and climate change
The paper discusses the contribution of plant breeding to the adaptation of crops to future climate. Climate change is now unequivocal, particularly in terms of increasing temperature, increasing CO2Expand
Drawing the future
  • L. Serna
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Plant signaling & behavior
  • 2008
The recent knowledge of the CO2 signalling mechanisms that regulate both stomatal function and development are covered. Expand
Photosynthesis and Water Use Efficiency 1(C)
Manipulating guard cell transport and metabolism is just as, if not more likely to yield useful benefits as manipulations of their physical and anatomical characteristics as achieving these benefits should be greatly facilitated by quantitative systems analysis. Expand
A role for the cuticular waxes in the environmental control of stomatal development.
The current knowledge of how environmental variables may impact on guard cell development is discussed and whether the composition of the epidermal waxes may be involved in this process is considered. Expand
Photosynthetic performance of an Arabidopsis mutant with elevated stomatal density (sdd1-1) under different light regimes.
Increased stomatal densities in the Arabidopsis mutant sdd1-1 enabled low-light-adapted plants to have 30% higher CO(2) assimilation rates compared to the wild type when exposed to high light intensities and resulted in differences in gas exchange and the carbohydrate metabolism of the wildtype and mutant. Expand
Signals from the cuticle affect epidermal cell differentiation.
Signs from the cuticle may influence how trichome and stomatal numbers in the epidermis are determined, and could be the mediating medium for such signals, stimulated by environmental cues, which affect epidermal cell fate. Expand
Topical Review on Stomata and Water Use Efficiency Stomatal Size, Speed, and Responsiveness Impact on Photosynthesis and Water Use Efficiency
The control of gaseous exchange between the leaf and bulk atmosphere by stomata governs CO2 uptake for photosynthesis and transpiration, determining plant productivity and water use efficiency. TheExpand
The relationship between cuticular lipids and associated gene expression in above ground organs of Thellungiella salsugineum (Pall.) Al-Shehbaz & Warwick.
The cuticle plays a critical role as barrier between plant and environment and its adaptation to extreme environments is discussed, and the association of cuticle lipid composition and gene expression within different organs of T. salsugineum's extreme cuticle is discussed. Expand


Stomatal numbers are sensitive to increases in CO2 from pre-industrial levels
Experiments have shown that the combination of this previously unreported response ofStomatal density to the level of CO2, with the known responses of stomatal aperture2, cause water use efficiency to be much lower than expected at low levels ofCO2 and over a wide range of humidities. Expand
Among the topics discussed are the partitioning of fatty acid precursors into wax biosynthesis and the elongation of fatty acids with particular emphasis on the nature of the acyl primer, and the role of ATP in fatty acid elongation. Expand
The influence of CO2 concentration on stomatal density
A survey of 100 species and 122 observations has shown an average reduction in stomatal density of 14.3% (SE ±2.2 %) with CO2 enrichment, with 74% of the cases exhibiting a reduction in Stomataldensity, and repeated observations indicated a significant repeatability in the direction of theStomatal response. Expand
A subtilisin-like serine protease involved in the regulation of stomatal density and distribution in Arabidopsis thaliana.
It is proposed that SDD1 acts as a processing protease involved in the mediation of a signal that controls the development of cell lineages that lead to guard cell formation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Expand
KCS1 encodes a fatty acid elongase 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase affecting wax biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Since alcohol, aldehyde, alkane and ketone levels were affected to varying degrees, involvement of the KCS1 synthase in both the decarbonylation and acyl-reduction wax synthesis pathways was demonstrated, indicating that there was redundancy in the elongase KCS activities involved in wax synthesis. Expand
Leaf Epicuticular Waxes of the Eceriferum Mutants in Arabidopsis
Wild-type Arabidopsis leaf epicuticular wax (EW) occurs as a smooth layer over the epidermal surface, whereas stem EW has a crystalline microstructure, and Compared to wild type, the amount of primary alcohols on cer9 mutants was reduced on leaves but elevated on stems, whereas an opposite differential effect forPrimary alcohols was observed on cer16 leaves and stems. Expand
Structural and genetic analysis of epidermal cell differentiation in Arabidopsis primary roots.
A complex pathway leading to root hair initiation that requires the RHL and ERH genes for correct differentiation is suggested, which suggests a complex role for the affected genes. Expand
Arabidopsis COP8, COP10, and COP11 genes are involved in repression of photomorphogenic development in darkness.
Results suggested that COP8, COP10, and COP11, together with COP1, COP9, and DET1, function to suppress the photomorphogenic developmental program and to promote skotomorphogenesis in darkness. Expand
The too many mouths and four lips mutations affect stomatal production in Arabidopsis.
This work screened cotyledons from ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized seeds of Arabidopsis by light microscopy to identify mutants with altered stomatal morphology and found the double mutant exhibits aspects of both parental phenotypes. Expand
The HIC signalling pathway links CO2 perception to stomatal development
The Arabidopsis gene HIC is identified, which encodes a negative regulator of stomatal development that responds to CO2 concentration, and a putative 3-keto acyl coenzyme A synthase is identified—an enzyme involved in the synthesis of very-long-chain fatty acids. Expand