Planning in the Face of Power.

@article{Kolb1988PlanningIT,
  title={Planning in the Face of Power.},
  author={Deborah M. Kolb and John Forester},
  journal={Administrative Science Quarterly},
  year={1988},
  volume={35},
  pages={565}
}
Abstract Information is a source of power in the planning process. This article begins by assessing five perspectives of the planner's use of information: those of the technician, the incremental pragmatist, the liberal advocate, the structuralist, and the “progressive.” Then several types of misinformation (inevitable or unnecessary, ad hoc or systematic) are distinguished in a reformulation of bounded rationality in planning, and practical responses by planning staff are identified. The role… 
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