Planning for the future by western scrub-jays

  title={Planning for the future by western scrub-jays},
  author={Caroline R. Raby and Dean M Alexis and Anthony Dickinson and Nicola S. Clayton},
Knowledge of and planning for the future is a complex skill that is considered by many to be uniquely human. We are not born with it; children develop a sense of the future at around the age of two and some planning ability by only the age of four to five. According to the Bischof-Köhler hypothesis, only humans can dissociate themselves from their current motivation and take action for future needs: other animals are incapable of anticipating future needs, and any future-oriented behaviours… 
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vidence for future cognition in animals illiam
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It is argued that the human ability to travel mentally in time constitutes a discontinuity between ourselves and other animals and allows a more rapid and flexible adaptation to complex, changing environments than is afforded by instincts or conventional learning.
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Although the rat findings support the Bischof-Kohler hypothesis, the monkey findings challenge it.
Flexible memory processing by rats: use of prospective and retrospective information in the radial maze.
Four experiments investigated the content of the memory used by rats in mediating retention intervals interpolated during performance in a 12-arm radial maze and found that the rats used information about previously visited arms but information about anticipated choices following a delay interpolated late in the choice sequence.
Episodic-like memory during cache recovery by scrub jays
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Are animals stuck in time?
Research on animals' abilities to detect time of day, track short time intervals, remember the order of a sequence of events, and anticipate future events are considered and it is concluded that the stuck-in-time hypothesis is largely supported by the current evidence.