In 1992 the Islamic Medical Association of Uganda designed an AIDS prevention project. A baseline survey was conducted to assess prevailing knowledge, attitudes, and practices among the Muslim communities in two districts. A low rate of incorrect beliefs about HIV transmission was found, although gaps in knowledge remain, particularly regarding vertical transmission and asymptomatic HIV infection. Less than 10% knew that condoms can protect against HIV transmission. Lack of knowledge was documented regarding the risk of HIV transmission associated with practices common in the Islamic community, such as polygamous marriages, circumcision, and ablution of the dead. The AIDS prevention project has incorporated specific messages and interventions as a result of these findings.