Planning Education for Long‐Term Retention: The Cognitive Science and Implementation of Retrieval Practice

@article{Larsen2018PlanningEF,
  title={Planning Education for Long‐Term Retention: The Cognitive Science and Implementation of Retrieval Practice},
  author={Douglas P Larsen},
  journal={Seminars in Neurology},
  year={2018},
  volume={38},
  pages={449–456}
}
Abstract Educational systems are rarely designed for long‐term retention of information. Strong evidence has emerged from cognitive psychology and applied education studies that repeated retrieval of information significantly improves retention compared to repeated studying. This effect likely emerges from the processes of memory consolidation and reconsolidation. Consolidation and reconsolidation are the means by which memories are organized into associational networks or schemas that are… 

Figures from this paper

A Random Controlled Trial to Examine the Efficacy of Blank Slate: A Novel Spaced Retrieval Tool with Real-Time Learning Analytics
TLDR
Embedded analytics allowed for real-time monitoring of learning progress that could form the basis of helpful feedback to learners for self-directed learning and educators for coaching.
An Evidence-Based Guide for Medical Students: How to Optimize the Use of Expanded-Retrieval Platforms
TLDR
Themes within learning that promote knowledge gain and retention include presentation of related categorical information, schema formation, dual-coding, concrete examples, elaboration, changes in text appearance, and interleaving.
Memorization practice and academic success in Saudi undergraduate students
PurposeIn the present study, the authors examined whether academic performance [grade point average (GPA)] can be predicted by self-reported frequency of memorization and recitation, verbatim memory
The Effect of Passive and Active Education Methods Applied in Repetition Activities on the Retention of Anatomical Knowledge
TLDR
The type of repetition activity has no effect on knowledge retention both immediately following the activity and in the long term, and the repetition of anatomical knowledge in any form is beneficial for students and will likely improve student outcomes in a curriculum that builds on prior knowledge.
Beyond right or wrong: More effective feedback for formative multiple-choice tests
TLDR
This work suggests that item-level feedback and feedback that identifies and elaborates on key conceptual knowledge are two important areas for future research on learning, retention and transfer.
A Meta-Analytic Review of the Benefit of Spacing out Retrieval Practice Episodes on Retention
Spaced retrieval practice consists of repetitions of the same retrieval event distributed through time. This learning strategy combines two “desirable difficulties”: retrieval practice and spacing
U-Behavior: Visual-Form Learning Analytics to Enhance Teaching and Learning
TLDR
A multi-year mixed-methods study that collected students learning analytics from participation in retrieval practice activities, low-stake quizzes and presented this data as visual-from LA to help students to be cognizant of and reflect on their learning practices in order to improve retention and recall by implementing high impact learning practices is presented.
Transferring the sandwich principle to instructional videos: is it worth the effort?
TLDR
The hypothesis that the modification of instructional videos according to the sandwich principle would lead to an improved learning outcome could not be proved subjectively or objectively, but the teaching format was highly appreciated by the students and may have increased their motivation to learn with instructional videos.
Transferring the sandwich principle to instructional videos: is it worth the effort?
TLDR
The hypothesis that the modification of instructional videos according to the sandwich principle would lead to an improved learning outcome could not be proved subjectively or objectively, but the teaching format was highly appreciated by the students and may have increased their motivation to learn with instructional videos.
Optimizing preclinical learning with retrieval practice: A call to action
TLDR
The concept of retrieval practice as an effective, evidence-based learning strategy that helped us retain knowledge for longer periods is reviewed and it is proposed that medical educators should adopt this strategy to best prepare medical students to navigate the vastly expanding scope of modern medicine.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 73 REFERENCES
Optimizing schedules of retrieval practice for durable and efficient learning: how much is enough?
TLDR
On the basis of the overall patterns of durability and efficiency, the prescriptive conclusion for students is to practice recalling concepts to an initial criterion of 3 correct recalls and then to relearn them 3 times at widely spaced intervals.
Retrieval-induced facilitation: initially nontested material can benefit from prior testing of related material.
TLDR
Three experiments examined how taking an initial test affects later memory for prose materials not initially tested, showing that testing enhanced recall 24 hr later for the initially nontested material.
The Role of Episodic Context in Retrieval Practice Effects
The episodic context account of retrieval-based learning proposes that retrieval enhances subsequent retention because people must think back to and reinstate a prior learning context. Three
Benefits of testing for nontested information: Retrieval-induced facilitation of episodically bound material
TLDR
The results suggest that testing may facilitate later free recall in part by enhancing access to information that is present during a prior temporal or list context, and suggest that retrieval-induced facilitation extends to a broader range of conditions than has been suggested.
The Power of Testing Memory: Basic Research and Implications for Educational Practice
TLDR
This article selectively review laboratory studies that reveal the power of testing in improving retention and then turns to studies that demonstrate the basic effects in educational settings, including the related concepts of dynamic testing and formative assessment.
Cue strength as a moderator of the testing effect: the benefits of elaborative retrieval.
  • Shana K. Carpenter
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 2009
TLDR
Results indicate that the activation of elaborative information-which would occur to a greater extent during testing than restudying--may be one mechanism that underlies the testing effect.
...
...