Plankton effect on cod recruitment in the North Sea

@article{Beaugrand2003PlanktonEO,
  title={Plankton effect on cod recruitment in the North Sea},
  author={Gr{\'e}gory Beaugrand and Keith Brander and J. Alistair Lindley and Sami Souissi and Philip C. Reid},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2003},
  volume={426},
  pages={661-664}
}
The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) has been overexploited in the North Sea since the late 1960s and great concern has been expressed about the decline in cod biomass and recruitment. Here we show that, in addition to the effects of overfishing, fluctuations in plankton have resulted in long-term changes in cod recruitment in the North Sea (bottom-up control). Survival of larval cod is shown to depend on three key biological parameters of their prey: the mean size of prey, seasonal timing and… 
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