# Planck 2015 results: XIV. Dark energy and modified gravity

@article{Ade2015Planck2R, title={Planck 2015 results: XIV. Dark energy and modified gravity}, author={P. A. R. Ade and Nabila Aghanim and Monique D. Arnaud and Mark Ashdown and J. Aumont and Carlo Baccigalupi and Anthony J. Banday and Rita Bel{\'e}n Barreiro and Nicola Bartolo and Eduardo Battaner and Richard A. Battye and Karim Benabed and Aur{\'e}lien Benoit and Aur{\'e}lien Benoit-L{\'e}vy and J-Ph. Bernard and M. Bersanelli and Pawel Bielewicz and Anna Bonaldi and Laura Bonavera and J. Richard Bond and Julian Borrill and Francois R. Bouchet and Manfred Bucher and Carlo Burigana and R. C. Butler and Erminia Calabrese and J.-F. Cardoso and A. Catalano and Anthony Challinor and A. Chamballu and H. C. Chiang and Philip R. Christensen and S. Church and David L. Clements and St{\'e}phane Colombi and Loris P. L. Colombo and C{\'e}line Combet and François Couchot and A. Coulais and Brendan P. Crill and A. Fernandez Curto and F. Cuttaia and Luigi Danese and Rodney D. Davies and R. J. Davis and Paolo Bernardis and Alessandra De Rosa and Gianfranco De Zotti and Jacques Delabrouille and F. X. D'esert and Jose M. Diego and Herve A. Dole and Simona Donzelli and Olivier Dor'e and Marian Douspis and Anne Ducout and Xavier Dupac and George P. Efstathiou and Franz Elsner and Torsten A. Ensslin and Hans Kristian Eriksen and J. R. Fergusson and Fabio Finelli and Olivier Forni and Marco Frailis and Aur'elien A. Fraisse and Enrico Franceschi and Anne Mette Frejsel and S. Galeotta and Silvia Galli and Ken Ganga and Martin Giard and Yannick Giraud-H'eraud and Eirik Gjerl{\o}w and Joaquin Gonz'alez-Nuevo and Krzysztof M. G'orski and Steven Gratton and Anna Gregorio and Alessandro Gruppuso and Jon E. Gudmundsson and F. K. Hansen and Duncan Hanson and D. L. Harrison and A. F. Heavens and George Helou and Sophie Henrot-Versill'e and Carlos Hern'andez-Monteagudo and Diego Herranz and Sergi R. Hildebrandt and Eric Hivon and Michael P. Hobson and Warren Albert Holmes and Allan Hornstrup and W. Hovest and Z. Huang and Kevin M. Huffenberger and Guillaume Hurier and Andrew H. Jaffe and Tess R. Jaffe and William C. Jones and Mika Juvela and Elina Keihanen and Reijo Keskitalo and Theodore Kisner and J{\"o}rg Knoche and Martin Kunz and Hannu Kurki-Suonio and Guilaine Lagache and Anne Lahteenmaki and J-M. Lamarre and Anthony N. Lasenby and Massimiliano Lattanzi and Charles R. Lawrence and Rodrigo Leonardi and Julien Lesgourgues and François L{\'e}vrier and A. M. Lewis and Michele Liguori and Per B. Lilje and M. J. D. Linden-V{\o}rnle and Marcos L'opez-Caniego and Philip Lubin and Y.-Z. Ma and Juan-Fancisco Mac'ias-P'erez and Gianmarco Maggio and Nazzareno Mandolesi and Anna Mangilli and Andrea Marchini and P. G. Martin and Matteo Martinelli and E. Mart'inez-Gonz'alez and Silvia Masi and S. Matarrese and Pasquale Mazzotta and Peregrine M. McGehee and Peter Meinhold and Alessandro Melchiorri and Luis Mendes and Aniello Mennella and Marina Migliaccio and Supriyo Mitra and Marc-Antoine Miville-Desch{\^e}nes and Andrea Moneti and Laurent Montier and G. Morgante and Daniel J. Mortlock and Adam Moss and Dipak Munshi and J. Anthony Murphy and Ali Narimani and Pavel D. Naselsky and Federico Nati and Paolo Natoli and Calvin Barth Netterfield and Hans Ulrik N{\o}rgaard-Nielsen and Fabio Noviello and Dmitri D Novikov and Ilya Novikov and Carol Anne Oxborrow and Francesco Paci and Luca Pagano and François Pajot and Daniela Paoletti and Fabio Pasian and Guillaume Patanchon and Timothy J. Pearson and Olivier Perdereau and L. Perotto and F. Perrotta and Valeria Pettorino and Francesco Piacentini and Michel Piat and Elena Pierpaoli and Davide Pietrobon and St{\'e}phane Plaszczynski and Etienne Pointecouteau and Gianluca Polenta and L. A. Popa and Gabriel W. Pratt and Gary Marcel Prezeau and Simon Prunet and J-L. Puget and Jorg P. Rachen and William T. Reach and Rafael Rebolo and Martin Reinecke and Mathieu Remazeilles and C'ecile Renault and Alessandro Renzi and Isabelle Ristorcelli and Graca M. Rocha and C. Dutruc Rosset and Mariachiara Rossetti and Gael M. Roudier and Michael Rowan-Robinson and Jos'e Alberto Rubino-Mart'in and Ben Rusholme and Valentina Salvatelli and M. Sandri and D. Santos and Matti Savelainen and Giorgio Savini and Bjoern Malte Schaefer and Douglas Scott and Michael Dean Seiffert and E. P. S. Shellard and Locke D Spencer and Vasily Stolyarov and Radek Stompor and R. Sudiwala and Rashid Sunyaev and David O. Sutton and A.-S. Suur-Uski and J. -F. Sygnet and Jan Tauber and Luca Terenzi and Luigi Toffolatti and Maurizio Tomasi and M. Tristram and Marco Tucci and Jussi Tuovinen and Luca Valenziano and Jussi Valiviita and Bartjan van Tent and Matteo Viel and Patricio Vielva and Fabrizio Villa and L A Wade and Benjamin D. Wandelt and Ingunn Kathrine Wehus and Martin White and D. Yvon and Andrea Zacchei and Andrea Zonca}, journal={Astronomy and Astrophysics}, year={2015}, volume={594}, pages={1-31} }

We study the implications of Planck data for models of dark energy (DE) and modified gravity (MG) beyond the standard cosmological constant scenario. We start with cases where the DE only directly affects the background evolution, considering Taylor expansions of the equation of state w(a), as well as principal component analysis and parameterizations related to the potential of a minimally coupled DE scalar field. When estimating the density of DE at early times, we significantly improve…

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