# Planck 2015 results: XIV. Dark energy and modified gravity

@article{Ade2016Planck2R, title={Planck 2015 results: XIV. Dark energy and modified gravity}, author={P. C. P. Ade and N. Aghanim and M. Arnaud and M. Ashdown and J. Aumont and C. Baccigalupi and A. Banday and R. B. Barreiro and N. Bartolo and E. Battaner and R. Battye and K. Benabed and A. Benoit and A. Benoit-levy and J. Bernard and M. Bersanelli and P. Bielewicz and A. Bonaldi and L. Bonavera and J. R. Bond and J. Borrill and F. Bouchet and M. Bucher and C. Burigana and R. C. Butler and E. Calabrese and J. Cardoso and A. Catalano and A. Challinor and A. Chamballu and H. Chiang and P. Christensen and S. Church and D. Clements and S. Colombi and L. Colombo and C. Combet and F. Couchot and A. Coulais and B. P. Crill and A. Curto and F. Cuttaia and L. Danese and R. Davies and R. Davis and P. Bernardis and A. Rosa and G. Zotti and J. Delabrouille and F. D{\'e}sert and J. Diego and H. Dole and S. Donzelli and O. Dor'e and M. Douspis and A. Ducout and X. Dupac and G. Efstathiou and F. Elsner and T. A. Ensslin and H. Eriksen and J. Fergusson and F. Finelli and O. Forni and M. Frailis and A. Fraisse and E. Franceschi and A. Frejsel and S. Galeotta and S. Galli and K. Ganga and M. Giard and Y. Giraud-H'eraud and E. Gjerl{\o}w and J. Gonz{\'a}lez-Nuevo and K. G{\'o}rski and S. Gratton and A. Gregorio and A. Gruppuso and J. Gudmundsson and F. Hansen and D. Hanson and D. Harrison and A. Heavens and G. Helou and S. Henrot-Versill'e and C. Hernandez-Monteagudo and D. Herranz and S. Hildebrandt and E. Hivon and M. Hobson and W. Holmes and A. Hornstrup and W. Hovest and Z. Huang and K. Huffenberger and G. Hurier and A. Jaffe and T. Jaffe and W. Jones and M. Juvela and E. Keihanen and R. Keskitalo and T. Kisner and J. Knoche and M. Kunz and H. Kurki-Suonio and G. Lagache and A. Lahteenmaki and J. Lamarre and A. Lasenby and M. Lattanzi and C. Lawrence and R. Leonardi and J. Lesgourgues and F. Levrier and A. Lewis and M. Liguori and P. Lilje and M. Linden-Vornle and M. L{\'o}pez-Caniego and P. Lubin and Y.-Z. Ma and J. Mac'ias-P'erez and G. Maggio and N. Mandolesi and A. Mangilli and A. Marchini and P. Martin and M. Martinelli and E. Martinez-Gonzalez and S. Masi and S. Matarrese and P. Mazzotta and P. McGehee and P. Meinhold and A. Melchiorri and L. Mendes and A. Mennella and M. Migliaccio and S. Mitra and M. Miville-Desch{\^e}nes and A. Moneti and L. Montier and G. Morgante and D. Mortlock and A. Moss and D. Munshi and J. A. Murphy and A. Narimani and P. Naselsky and F. Nati and P. Natoli and C. B. Netterfield and H. N{\o}rgaard-Nielsen and F. Noviello and D. Novikov and I. Novikov and C. A. Oxborrow and F. Paci and L. Pagano and F. Pajot and D. Paoletti and F. Pasian and G. Patanchon and T. J. Pearson and O. Perdereau and L. Perotto and F. Perrotta and V. Pettorino and F. Piacentini and M. Piat and E. Pierpaoli and D. Pietrobon and S. Plaszczynski and E. Pointecouteau and G. Polenta and L. Popa and G. W. Pratt and G. Prezeau and S. Prunet and J. Puget and J. Rachen and W. Reach and R. Rebolo and M. Reinecke and M. Remazeilles and C. Renault and A. Renzi and I. Ristorcelli and G. Rocha and C. Rosset and M. Rossetti and G. Roudier and M. Rowan-Robinson and J. A. Rubi{\~n}o-Mart{\'i}n and B. Rusholme and V. Salvatelli and M. Sandri and D. Santos and M. Savelainen and G. Savini and B. Schaefer and D. Scott and M. Seiffert and E. Shellard and L. Spencer and V. Stolyarov and R. Stompor and R. Sudiwala and R. Sunyaev and D. Sutton and A. Suur-Uski and J. Sygnet and J. Tauber and L. Terenzi and L. Toffolatti and M. Tomasi and M. Tristram and M. Tucci and J. Tuovinen and L. Valenziano and J. Valiviita and B. Tent and M. Viel and P. Vielva and F. Villa and L. A. Wade and B. Wandelt and I. Wehus and M. White and D. Yvon and A. Zacchei and A. Zonca}, journal={Astronomy and Astrophysics}, year={2016}, volume={594}, pages={1-31} }

We study the implications of Planck data for models of dark energy (DE) and modified gravity (MG) beyond the standard cosmological constant scenario. We start with cases where the DE only directly affects the background evolution, considering Taylor expansions of the equation of state w(a), as well as principal component analysis and parameterizations related to the potential of a minimally coupled DE scalar field. When estimating the density of DE at early times, we significantly improve… CONTINUE READING

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