Plan in 2-D, execute in 3-D: an augmented reality solution for cup placement in total hip arthroplasty

@article{Fotouhi2018PlanI2,
  title={Plan in 2-D, execute in 3-D: an augmented reality solution for cup placement in total hip arthroplasty},
  author={Javad Fotouhi and Clayton P. Alexander and M. Unberath and Giacomo Taylor and Sing Chun Lee and Bernhard Fuerst and Alex Johnson and Greg M. Osgood and Russell H. Taylor and Harpal S. Khanuja and Mehran Armand and Nassir Navab},
  journal={Journal of Medical Imaging},
  year={2018},
  volume={5}
}
Abstract. Reproducibly achieving proper implant alignment is a critical step in total hip arthroplasty procedures that has been shown to substantially affect patient outcome. In current practice, correct alignment of the acetabular cup is verified in C-arm x-ray images that are acquired in an anterior–posterior (AP) view. Favorable surgical outcome is, therefore, heavily dependent on the surgeon’s experience in understanding the 3-D orientation of a hemispheric implant from 2-D AP projection… 
Technical note: an augmented reality system for total hip arthroplasty
TLDR
An easy to use intra-operative component planning system based on two C-arm X-ray images that is combined with 3D augmented reality (AR) visualization that simplifies impactor and cup placement according to the planning by providing a real-time RGBD data overlay is proposed.
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TLDR
This data validates the proposed methodology to calculate 3D anteversion and inclination angles based on 2D fluoroscopic images to within five degrees and can be utilized to improve acetabular component placing intraoperatively and to check component placement postoperatively.
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The proposed solution enables the surgeon to visualize pre-operative data overlaid with information from the surgical site for any C-arm pose, and negates issues of line-of-sight and long setup times, which are present in commercially available systems.
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An on-the-fly surgical support system that provides guidance using augmented reality and can be used in quasiunprepared operating rooms and design a feasibility study on a semianthropomorphic phantom is presented.
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A collaborative augmented reality (AR) surgical ecosystem to jointly co-localize the C-arm X-ray and surgeon viewer and presents a thorough evaluation of the hand-eye calibration procedure.
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