Placental stress factors and maternal-fetal adaptive response

  title={Placental stress factors and maternal-fetal adaptive response},
  author={Pasquale Florio and F. M. Severi and Pasquapina Ciarmela and Giovina Fiore and Giulia Calonaci and Angelica Merola and Claudio de Felice and Marco Palumbo and Felice Petraglia},
The placenta and its accessory membranes amnion and chorion undertake the role of intermediary barriers and active messengers in the maternal-fetal dialog. They synthesize, metabolize, and serve as target to numerous hormones that regulate maternal and fetal physiology during pregnancy. Among these factors, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) has been one of the more investigated in the last decade. Increasing evidence indicates that in the event of acute or chronic metabolic, physical, or… 

Stress and Pregnancy: CRF as Biochemical Marker

The initiation, maintenance, and termination of pregnancy are related to placental functions, as the human placenta contributes to maintaining equilibrium between the fetus and the mother, through

Biochemical Assessment of Placental Function

It is known that the placenta alters the expression levels of several placental biomarkers, “opening a door” to the study of such concentrations as prognostic factors of the aforementioned pregnancy disorders.

On the function of placental corticotropin‐releasing hormone: a role in maternal‐fetal conflicts over blood glucose concentrations

An alternative view is proposed here: the beneficial effect of placental CRH to the fetus lies in the fact that it does stimulate the production of cortisol, which, in turn, leads to greater concentrations of glucose in the maternal bloodstream available for fetal consumption.

Neuroendocrinology of pregnancy and parturition.

Neuroendocrine mechanisms in pregnancy and parturition.

Evidence for a premature activation of OT secretion as well as increased maternal plasma CRH levels suggests a pathogenic role of these neurohormones, and placental hypersecretion of CRH or Ucn has been proposed as a predictive marker of subsequent preterm delivery.

Functions of corticotropin‐releasing hormone in anthropoid primates: From brain to placenta

  • M. PowerJ. Schulkin
  • Biology, Medicine
    American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council
  • 2006
Placental expression of CRH supports the hypothesis that placental CRH performs multiple roles during gestation, and a clearer understanding of the diversity of patterns of placentalCRH expression among anthropoid primates would aid understanding of its role in human pregnancy.

Maternal plasma corticotrophin-releasing factor and urocortin levels in post-term pregnancies.

Since CRF derives from the placenta, and urocortin from the fetus, the concerted expression of these neuropeptides appears to be relevant in determining the length of human gestation.

Placental enzymes involved in regulatory peptide metabolism in EPH-gestosis

Findings suggest involvement of placental proteases into formation of compensatory-adaptive reactions in the fetoplacental complex at EPH-gestosis and the data obtained may be also employed for the development of methods of prophylaxis and corrections of metabolic impairments in pathology of pregnancy.



Human Placenta as a Source of Neuroendocrine Factors

Evidence underlines the decisive contribution of the placenta to all phases of gestation, through a range of substances largely exceeding the classically known sex steroids and chorionic gonadotropin, throughout normal pregnancy as well as in the presence of gestational diseases.

Peptide signaling in human placenta and membranes: autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine mechanisms.

A growing number of studies has provided strong evidence that fetal membranes (amnion, chorion) and maternal decidua are capable of hormone production and metabolism and, when containing hormonal receptors, serve as endocrine organs.

Paracrine regulation of human placenta: control of hormonogenesis.

Steroids modulate corticotropin-releasing hormone production in human fetal membranes and placenta.

It is concluded that immuno- and biologically active CRH is produced not only in the human placenta, but also in the fetal membranes, raising the possibility of a regulatory system similar to that of the hypothalamic pituitary axis, but residing within the placentA and fetal membranes.

Endocrine and paracrine regulation of birth at term and preterm.

In human pregnancy, it is argued that high circulating progesterone concentrations are required to effect regionalization of uterine activity, with predominantly relaxation in the lower uterine segment, allowing contractions in the fundal region to precipitate delivery.

Predictive value of hormone measurements in maternal and fetal complications of pregnancy.

Only in a few instances is there sufficient evidence to firmly recommend the routine use of hormone tests to predict maternal and fetal complications, but the judicious use of selected tests may enhance the risk assessment based solely on clinical and ultrasound examination.

Elevated levels of umbilical cord plasma corticotropin-releasing hormone in growth-retarded fetuses.

The umbilical cord plasma CRH level is extremely elevated in growth-retarded fetuses compared to that in normal fetuses and may modulate fetal pituitary-adrenal function in high risk pregnancies.