Placental hormones and the control of maternal metabolism and fetal growth

@article{Newbern2011PlacentalHA,
  title={Placental hormones and the control of maternal metabolism and fetal growth},
  author={Dorothee Newbern and Michael Freemark},
  journal={Current Opinion in Endocrinology \& Diabetes and Obesity},
  year={2011},
  volume={18},
  pages={409–416}
}
Purpose of review To examine the roles of the placental and pituitary hormones in the control of maternal metabolism and fetal growth. Recent findings In addition to promoting growth of maternal tissues, placental growth hormone (GH-V) induces maternal insulin resistance and thereby facilitates the mobilization of maternal nutrients for fetal growth. Human placental lactogen (hPL) and prolactin increase maternal food intake by induction of central leptin resistance and promote maternal beta… 
Placental control of metabolic adaptations in the mother for an optimal pregnancy outcome. What goes wrong in gestational diabetes?
TLDR
Maternal obesity and the presence of diabetes in pregnancy is associated with a disrupted balance in the placental expression of PL and GH-V, which could potentially be modulated during pregnancy to increase β-cell mass and prevent the onset of gestational diabetes.
Placental Endocrine Function and Hormone Action
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Some Aspects of Endocrinology of the Placenta
The production of hormones that occur in pregnancy and their changes are the most remarkable recorded in mammalian physiology or pathophysiology. These include those of the maternal pituitary gland,
Placental Lactogen as a Marker of Maternal Obesity, Diabetes, and Fetal Growth Abnormalities: Current Knowledge and Clinical Perspectives
TLDR
PL concentration measurement could be useful in the prediction of fetal macrosomia in women with normal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results or in evaluating the risk of fetal growth restriction, but its application in standard clinical practice seems to be limited in the era of ultrasonography.
The placental programming hypothesis: Placental endocrine insufficiency and the co-occurrence of low birth weight and maternal mood disorders.
TLDR
The aberrant expression of imprinted genes in the placenta may underlie the reported co-occurrence of low birth weight with maternal prenatal depression and may influence birth weight and maternal mood.
Obesity and regulation of human placental lactogen production in pregnancy
TLDR
Evidence from partially humanised hGH/PL transgenic mice indicates that both the remote upstream hPL locus control region (LCR) and more gene‐related regulatory regions are required for placental expression in vivo, and a specific pattern of interactions between the LCR and hPL gene promoter regions is detected in term placenta chromatin from women with a normal body mass index.
Metabolic-endocrine disruption due to preterm birth impacts growth, body composition, and neonatal outcome
TLDR
Interventional studies that have aimed to compensate for hormonal deficiencies in infants born preterm through IGF therapy, resulting in improved neonatal morbidity and growth are reported, demonstrating promising effects of early IGF-1 supplementation on postnatal development and neonatal outcomes.
Placental regulation of energy homeostasis during human pregnancy.
TLDR
Current efforts to close the gap of knowledge surrounding placental endocrine regulation of maternal metabolic trends in pathological pregnancies are discussed and areas where more research is needed are highlighted.
Human Placental Growth Hormone Variant in Pathological Pregnancies.
TLDR
The potential roles of GH-V in normal and pathological pregnancies are discussed and the assays used to quantify this hormone are touched on.
Pituitary Physiology During Pregnancy and Lactation
TLDR
Pregnancy is a state of integration of three complex and physiological neuroendocrine compartments: maternal, placental, and fetal, each plays a critical role in maintaining the health of the embryo/fetus, placenta, and mother up to delivery.
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