Placebos in chronic pain: evidence, theory, ethics, and use in clinical practice

@article{Kaptchuk2020PlacebosIC,
  title={Placebos in chronic pain: evidence, theory, ethics, and use in clinical practice},
  author={Ted J. Kaptchuk and Christopher C. Hemond and Franklin G. Miller},
  journal={BMJ},
  year={2020},
  volume={370}
}
ABSTRACT Despite their ubiquitous presence, placebos and placebo effects retain an ambiguous and unsettling presence in biomedicine. Specifically focused on chronic pain, this review examines the effect of placebo treatment under three distinct frameworks: double blind, deception, and open label honestly prescribed. These specific conditions do not necessarily differentially modify placebo outcomes. Psychological, clinical, and neurological theories of placebo effects are scrutinized. In… 
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