Placebo psychotherapy: synonym or oxymoron?

  title={Placebo psychotherapy: synonym or oxymoron?},
  author={Irving Kirsch},
  journal={Journal of clinical psychology},
  volume={61 7},
Contrary to some recent claims, the placebo effect is real and in some cases very substantial. Placebo effects can be produced or enhanced by classical conditioning, but consistent with virtually all contemporary conditioning theories, these effects are generally mediated by expectancy. Expectancy can also produce placebo effects that are inconsistent with conditioning history. Although expectancy also plays an important role in psychotherapy outcome, the logic of placebo-controlled trials does… CONTINUE READING
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