Placebo and naloxone can alter post-surgical pain by separate mechanisms

  title={Placebo and naloxone can alter post-surgical pain by separate mechanisms},
  author={Richard H. Gracely and Ronald Dubner and Patricia J. Wolskee and William R. Deeter},
The discovery of an endogenous opioid-mediated analgesic system1,2 has led to the search for its physiological roles and how it might be activated in natural conditions. Environmental and surgical stress and certain forms of transcutaneous electrical stimulation or acupuncture appear to activate this system3–5. Several studies also suggest that this opioid system mediates placebo analgesia. Placebo reduces post-surgical pain in comparison with no treatment6, and this analgesia is apparently… CONTINUE READING
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