Placebo-Induced Changes in fMRI in the Anticipation and Experience of Pain

@article{Wager2004PlaceboInducedCI,
  title={Placebo-Induced Changes in fMRI in the Anticipation and Experience of Pain},
  author={Tor D. Wager and James K. Rilling and Edward E. Smith and Alex Sokolik and Kenneth L. Casey and Richard J. Davidson and Stephen M. Kosslyn and Robert M. Rose and Jonathan D. Cohen},
  journal={Science},
  year={2004},
  volume={303},
  pages={1162 - 1167}
}
The experience of pain arises from both physiological and psychological factors, including one's beliefs and expectations. Thus, placebo treatments that have no intrinsic pharmacological effects may produce analgesia by altering expectations. However, controversy exists regarding whether placebos alter sensory pain transmission, pain affect, or simply produce compliance with the suggestions of investigators. In two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments, we found that placebo… 
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he Neural Bases of lacebo Effects in Anticipation and Pain or
Numerous studies of experimental and clinical pain show that placebo treatments reduce reported pain and that expectancies play a key role in their effectiveness. However, very little is known about
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