Pixantrone (BBR 2778) has reduced cardiotoxic potential in mice pretreated with doxorubicin: Comparative studies against doxorubicin and mitoxantrone

@article{Cavalletti2007Pixantrone2,
  title={Pixantrone (BBR 2778) has reduced cardiotoxic potential in mice pretreated with doxorubicin: Comparative studies against doxorubicin and mitoxantrone},
  author={Ennio Cavalletti and Luca Crippa and Patrizia Mainardi and Norberto Oggioni and Rosanna Cavagnoli and Ornella Bellini and Franca Sala},
  journal={Investigational New Drugs},
  year={2007},
  volume={25},
  pages={187-195}
}
SummaryAnthracyclines and anthracenediones are important oncotherapeutics; however, their use is associated with irreversible and cumulative cardiotoxicity. A novel aza-anthracenedione, pixantrone (BBR 2778), was developed to reduce treatment-related cardiotoxicity while retaining efficacy. This study evaluates the cumulative cardiotoxic potential of pixantrone compared with equiactive doses of doxorubicin and mitoxantrone in both doxorubicin-pretreated and doxorubicin-naïve mice. CD1 female… 

Pixantrone: a novel aza-anthracenedione in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas

TLDR
When intensively pretreated patients with relapsed aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were treated with a cyclophosphamide, pixantrone, vincristine and prednisolone regimen (pixantrones substituted for doxorubicin in standard regimen), the overall response was 74% and complete response 57%.

Rethinking Drugs from Chemistry to Therapeutic Opportunities: Pixantrone beyond Anthracyclines.

TLDR
Understanding the differences between pixantrone and anthracyclines or mitoxantrone may help one to appreciate how it worked in the phase 3 study that led to its approval in Europe and how it might work in many more patients in everyday clinical practice, were it properly perceived as a drug with its own characteristics and therapeutic potential.

Pixantrone, a new anticancer drug with the same old cardiac problems? An in vitro study with differentiated and non-differentiated H9c2 cells

TLDR
This was the first in vitro study performed with PIX in H9c2 cells and it discloses worrying cytotoxicity at clinically relevant concentrations, although PIX toxicity was slightly higher in differentiated H9C2 cells.

The Novel Anthracenedione, Pixantrone, Lacks Redox Activity and Inhibits Doxorubicinol Formation in Human Myocardium: Insight to Explain the Cardiac Safety of Pixantrone in Doxorubicin-Treated Patients

TLDR
Redox inactivity in the face of high cardiac uptake suggests that pixantrone might also be safe in doxorubicin-naïve patients, and correlates with the cardiac safety of pixanrone in doXorubICin-pretreated patients.

Randomized Phase II Study of Two Doses of Pixantrone in Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer (NCCTG N1031, Alliance)

TLDR
Pixantrone has insufficient activity in the second- and third-line MBC setting, however, it appears to have limited cardiotoxicity.

Pixantrone (BBR2778) Reduces the Severity of Experimental Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis in Lewis Rats1

TLDR
The effectiveness and the reduced cardiotoxicity make PIX a promising immunosuppressant agent suitable for clinical investigation in MG, although additional experiments are needed to confirm its safety profile in prolonged treatments.

Phase I/II study of pixantrone in combination with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone in patients with relapsed aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma

TLDR
Pixantrone is a potentially more effective, less cardiotoxic alternative to doxorubicin for patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (aNHL), in patients with relapsed aNHL who had previously received CHOP ± rituximab.

Inflammation as a Possible Trigger for Mitoxantrone-Induced Cardiotoxicity: An In Vivo Study in Adult and Infant Mice

TLDR
Clinically relevant doses of MTX caused dissimilar responses in adult and infant mice, being that inflammation may be an important trigger to MTX-induced cardiotoxicity.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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